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Devon Contents & Search
SUMMARY OF DEVONSHIRE, SHEWING THE POPULATION OF THE HUNDREDS, &c., IN 1841, AND THEIR TERRITORIAL EXTENT.
|* Budleigh, (East)||52,341||22,001|
|* Ottery St. Mary.||9,944||4,194|
|Tawton, (North) with Winkleigh||65,330||13,955|
|Exeter (City of)||4,000||31,312|
The Hundreds are divided into PETTY SESSIONAI. DIVISIONS, as shewn with the lists of Magistrates, and with the descriptions of the Hundreds. The County is divided into 25 UNIONS which are described with the parishes from which they are named, and it is shewn with each Hundred to what Unions its Parishes belong. The Unions generally coincide with the COUNTY COURT DISTRICTS.
* PARLIAMENTARY DIVISIONS, &c. - The 16 hundreds and 2 Boroughs marked thus * are in the Southern Division of the County, which includes also Exeter Castle, but the City of Exeter is a county of itself. All the other 16 hundreds are in the Northern Division of Devon, which has its chief place of election at South Molton, and has polling places also at Collumpton, Tiverton, Linton, Ilfracombe, Barnstaple, Bideford, Torrington, Holsworthy, Hatherleigh, Chulmleigh, and Crediton. For the Southern Division, Exeter is the principal place of election, and its other polling places are Newton Abbot, Totnes, Dartmouth, Kingsbridge, Plymouth, Tavistock, Okehampton, and Honiton. Each Division has two members of parliament, as also has the City of Exeter, and each of the following BOROUGHS, viz., Plymouth, Devonport, Barnstaple, Honiton, Tavistock, Tiverton, and Totnes. The Boroughs of Ashburton and Dartmouth each send one, making the total number of 22 members sent from this county to the House of Commons. The boroughs of Plympton, Okehampton, and Beer-Alston, in Devon, were disfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832, previous to which this county sent 26 members.
COUNTY VOTERS. - There are in the county about 8000 freeholders, and a large number of lease and copyholders. The largest number of freeholders polled for the whole county before 1832, was in 1818, when 4190 voted for Lord Ebrington; 3830 for E.P. Bastard, Esq.; and 3814 for Sir T.D. Acland, Bart. The number of electors registered for the County in 1837, was 18,432; of whom 12,561 were for the Southern Division, and 7871 for the Northern Division. Their present MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT are Sir T.D. Acland, Bart., and L.W. Buck, Esq., for the Northern Division; and Sir J.B.Y. Buller, Bart., and Sir R. Lopes, Bart., for the Southern Division.
POPULATION, HOUSES, &c. - Of the 533,460 inhabitants at the last census, 252,760 were males, and 280,700 females, living in 94,704 houses, besides which there were in the county 6129 unoccupied houses, and 901 building, when the census was taken, on the 7th of June, 1841, when there were in the county 51,058 persons born elsewhere. Of the persons above 20 years of age, 131,975 were males, and 158,927 females. In the year 1801, Devon had only 343,001 souls, but in 1811, they had increased to 383,308; in 1821, to 439,040; in 1831, to 494,478; and in 1841, to 533,460, living in 588 parishes, chapelries, and extra-parochial places. The total number of parishes in the county is 465, exclusive of the new district parishes recently established. In 1831, the population consisted of 103,277 families, 36,150 of whom were chiefly employed in agriculture, 33,880 chiefly in trade, manufacture, or handicraft; and 33,247 otherwise employed, or living on their property without trade or profession.
ASSESSMENTS, RENTAL, &c. - The annual rental of the land in Devon assessed to the property tax in 1811, was £1,217,547, but the annual value of real property, (land, buildings, &c.,) was assessed to the same tax in 1815, at £1,897,515. The parochial assessments of the county in 1823, amounted to £227,425, of which £175,412 was levied on land; £47,461 on dwelling-houses, £2624 on mills and factories; and £1927 on manorial profits. In 1803 the parochial assessments amounted to £179,359, of which £148,565 was expended on the poor. In 1821, these assessments amounted to £272,939, of which £234,097 was expended on the poor. In 1839, after the foundation of the large unions, and the erection of extensive workhouses, the sums collected in poor rates in the county amounted to £2l4,500. The County Rates are levied in Devon on a valuation made under a special act of parliament passed some years ago. They amounted in 1800,to £7031; in 1810, to £23,519; in 1830, to £12,783; in 1838, to £18,459; and in 1849, to upwards of £24,000, exclusive of Exeter, and the boroughs having separate quarter sessions, viz., Barnstaple, Bideford, Dartmouth, Plymouth, Devonport, Tiverton, and South Molton - the latter of which is not a parliamentary borough. The quarter sessions for the county are all held at Exeter, where two assizes are held yearly, for the county, and two for the City. (See page 62.)
ANCIENT HISTORY. - Devon was called Dunan by the Cornish Britons; Deuffneynt by the Welsh; and Devnascyre by the Anglo-Saxons. It is supposed that it was inhabited at a very remote period, and that its inhabitants had commercial transactions in tin, &c., with the Phoenicians and Greeks. Polwhele says that its aborigines were the Danmonii; but Whitaker supposes the latter were the Belgic invaders, and that the first inhabitants were the Cimbri, some of whom, after the invasion of the Belgae from Gaul, emigrated to Ireland, and others continued in the north-west parts of Devonshire. Caesar tells us that when he landed in Britain, he found the Belgae occupying the sea coast; but Richard of Cirencester says the Cimbri were on the north, and the Danmonii on the south coast of Devon. The county was included with Cornwall, under the name of Danmonium, which is supposed to be derived from the Phoenician words dan or dun, a hill; and moina, mines; or from Welsh words signifying deep valleys. Under the Roman domination, Devon was included in that large and important division of the island called Britannia Prima; and by the Saxons it was made art of the kingdom of Wessex, and so continued till the incorporation of the seven Saxon Kingdoms into one monarchy, in the time of Egbert; as will be seen at pages 52 to 59, where most of the momentous events relating to the general history of Devon, are necessarily incorporated with the history of the city of Exeter. There has been nothing peculiar in the government of Devonshire, except that of the Stannary Laws, which have been in force from a very early period in the mining districts. The "STANNARY PARLIAMENTS" were anciently held in the open air, on an elevated spot called Crockentor, in Dartmoor. Polwhele, who wrote about 1795, says that the president's chair, the jurors' seats, &c., cut in the rude stone, remained entire nearly till that period, though it had been customary for a very long time only to open the commission and swear in the jury on the site of the ancient court, and then to adjourn to the court house of one of the stannary towns, viz., Ashburton, Chagford, Plympton, and Tavistock. The stannary prison was a miserable dungeon at Lidford Castle. The custom of opening the court at Crockerntor, has been many years disused.
Until the invasion of Julius Caesar, 55 years before the birth of Christ, the history of Britain is almost a blank, though the Phoenicians of Cadiz are supposed to have traded with Devon and Cornwall for tin, &c., some centuries before the Christian era. The Ancient Britons, in the south of England, had made some little progress towards civilization when Caesar invaded the island. They were divided into various tribes and nations, and their religion, which formed part of their free monarchical government, was druidical. The BRITISH DRUIDS exercised their utmost authority in opposing the usurpation of the Roman invaders, who, fired with equal resentment, determined to secure themselves by exterminating the Druidic Order. In ancient times, Devonshire produced greater quantities of tin than Cornwall, and the method of mining was then of the simplest description, by "shoding and streaming". There are numerous stream works on Dartmoor and its vicinity, which have been forsaken for ages. In the parishes of Monaton, Kingsteignton, and Teigngrace, are many old tin works of this kind. That the Druids abounded in Devonshire, and were conversant particularly with Dartmoor Forest and its neighbourhood, is evident from the cromlechs, logan-stones, rock basins, stone Pillars, circles, cairns, rocking stones, rude bridges, &c., still to be seen in the wild solitudes of the forest, and in the surrounding parishes of Drewsteignton, Manaton, Okehampton, &c. (See page 190.) The religious and civil jurisdiction of the Druids prevailed all over Britain. They dispensed justice; not under any written code of laws, but on what they professed to be equitable principles - all their verdicts being determined by such sense as the assembled delegates entertained of impartial justice, and on discordance of opinion in the congress, appeal was made to the Arch-Druid, whose sentence was decisive. Their religious ceremonies were few, and nearly in unison with those of the ancient Hebrews. They worshipped on high places and in deep groves ; and were not so much addicted to idolatry as some authors have asserted, but adored the God of nature, and rendered him praise on the yearly succession of the seasons, which they kept as solemn festivals. Though they dealt largely in allegory and symbolical representations, they practised but little priestcraft, and held not the ignorance of their votaries in the bonds of superstition; but they clearly explained the mysteries and symbols used in their ceremonies, to the initiated. To remove from the people all possibility of sophistry and innovation, their maxims of justice were taught orally; and the sons of chief personages were disciples in their ethic schools, where the rules of moral life were inculcated as the foundation of human wisdom. They studied medicine and the virtue of plants, of which the misletoe was their chief specific; and they held nothing so sacred as the misletoe of the oak, which they gathered with great pomp and ceremony on a certain day, appointed for their greatest festival. In their civil government, capital offenders were sentenced to death, and publicly sacrificed on the altars of their temples; whilst those convicted of minor crimes were excluded from public worship, and excommunicated from all civil and religious benefits, till they had washed out, with the tears of repentance, the stains with which their guilt had branded them. Julius Caesar said the Druids inculcated the immortality and transmigration of the soul, and discoursed with youth much about the heavenly bodies. Great numbers of the druids were massacred by the Romans in the unsuccessful revolt of the Britons under Qneen Boadicea, and from that period their power and splendour rapidly disappeared. The wild solitudes of Dartmoor are the great store-houses of Druidical and other British remains in Devon, and it is even conjectured that the ancient oaks of Wistman's or Wiseman's wood, near Bairdown, or the hill of Bards, amidst the gigantic tors and the rude British remains of Dartmoor Forest, are the "posterity" of a Druidical grove. This extensive forest was no doubt one of the last retreats of the Druids of Danmonia, and it was always their favourite place of resort. Ancient British Roads ran from Exmouth to Woodbury, and thence to Taunton in Somersetshire; from Exeter to Molland, from Crediton to Haldon, from Exeter to Okehampton, and from Seaton to Molland. In the ancient tin streams in and near Dartmoor, various celts and Roman coins, rings, brooches, &c., have been found. Antique bronze wristlets were found some years ago, on the wrists of a skeleton, dug up in the earthwork near Lower St. Columb; and near the remains of the Phoenician smelting houses was found a block of Jew's tin, much corroded, and betraying marks of such great antiquity, that it is supposed to be the most ancient in existence.
As noticed at page 52, the ROMANS had their chief station in this county at Exeter, from which they had roads diverging mostly in the lines of the British track ways. The principal of these passed through the whole length of Devonshire from northeast to southwest, and was called Ikeneld street. It entered this county from Dorsetshire, a little east of Axminster, whence it proceeded by Shute hill, Dalwood-down, Honiton, &c., to the large entrenchment at Hembury Fort. (See page 294.) From the latter it passed by Colestock, Talewater, Tallaton Common, and Larkbeare to Stretwayhead, where it is still known by the name of the Old Taunton road. It crossed the river at Exeter, a little below Exe Bridge, and went over Haldon hill, near Ugbrooke, where there is a strong British camp. Below Newton Abbot it crossed the Teign by a ford still called Hacknieldway. After leaving another British camp on its left, it passed over Ford common to Totnes, which was a station of the ancient Britons. This ancient road was joined at Streetway-head by that from Exmouth, which passed through the great camp at Woodbury. Owing to local circumstances, antiquarians have found much difficulty in tracing the Roman roads, and fixing the sites of the stations in this county; and their opinions are so much at variance, that we shall dismiss the subject by referring the reader to the histories of those towns and parishes where there are remains or traces of them.
Though vestiges of numerous fortifications and encampments shew that Devon was a seat of warfare at a very early period, the earliest military transaction on record is the defeat of the Britons, in 614, by Cynegils, King of the West Saxons. The Danes having made frequent descents upon the coast, at last settled themselves in Exeter, but were besieged by Alfred the Great, and compelled to a truce. In the ensuing year they landed on the northern coast, and were defeated, with the loss of their favourite standard the raven. In 894, they attempted to besiege Exeter, but withdrew on the approach of Alfred. In 1001 they were equally unsuccessful in their attack upon that city, but pillaged the surrounding country and retired with the spoil. Subsequently, however, they gained possession, and nearly destroyed it. In 1067, Exeter stood a regular siege before it surrendered to William the Conqueror. On the accession of Wm. Rufus, it was laid waste by the partizans of Robert, Duke of Normandy. During the civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, Devonshire was much disturbed; though no battle was fought within its limits. In 1497, Perkin Warbeck besieged Exeter, but the siege being raised by the Earl of Devon, Warbeck proceeded to Taunton. When the civil wars between Charles I. and the Parliament commenced, this county was controlled by committees, and the majority of the inhabitants were attached to the Parliament. Plymouth was fortified by the townsmen against the royalists. Exeter was garrisoned by the parliamentarians, and a cavalry body, raised in the county, was stationed at Fitzford, near Tavistock. After the defeat of the parliamentarians, a cessation of hostilities was agreed on; but the treaty was soon broken off, and the county again disturbed by internal broils. In 1644, the Earl of Essex fixed his head quarters at Tiverton, and having secured Barnstaple for the Parliament, marched into Cornwall, and was followed by the King. In October, Ilfracombe and Barnstaple surrendered to the royal forces. In 1645, the clubmen of Devon declared for the Parliament, and from this time the royalists experienced great reverses. In the midst of their disasters, Sir Thomas Fairfax, commander-in-chief of the parliamentarian Army, entered the county, and soon reduced every town and fortress. He took Exeter, after a long siege, in April, 1646. Pursuing his victorious career, he stormed the church and castle of Tiverton, and attacked and defeated Lord Hopeton's army at Torrington. This victory appears to have given the death blow to the royalist's power in the west, and the last garrison which held out for the King was Char1es-fort, at Salcombe-Regis. The latest event of great national importance, which took place in Devonshire, was the landing of William, Prince of Orange, at Torbay, in 1688, preparatory to the "glorious revolution" which placed him upon the throne. (See pages 52 to 60.)
NORMAN CONQUEST:- No sooner was William the Conqueror seated on the throne of England, than he shewed that his policy was to root out the Anglo-Saxon nobility, and to degrade the native inhabitants of the humbler classes to the rank of miserable slaves; though in this work he was obstinately opposed in some parts of the kingdom, especially in the north. Conscious of the detestation in which he was held, he entertained perpetual jealousy of the English. He built and garrisoned stone castles, to keep them in awe; and in the wantonness of his power, obliged them to extinguish their fires and candles every evening at the ringing of a bell called the curfew. He also caused a survey to be made of all the lands in the kingdom, the register of which is called Domesday Book, and was finished in 1081, after a labour of six years, on the model of the Book of Winchester, compiled by order of Alfred the Great. Throughout all time this book will be held in estimation, as it specifies the extent of the land in each district; the state it was in, whether meadow, pasture, wood, or arable; the name of the proprietor; the tenure by which it was held; and the value at which it was estimated. It afforded the Conqueror an exact knowledge of his own land and revenue, while the rights of his subjects, in disputed cases, were settled by it; and to this day it serves to show what manor is, and what is not, ancient demesne. This valuable manuscript is still preserved in the Chapter House, at Westminster Abbey; and copies of it were printed in the 40th of George III., for the use of the members of both Houses of Parliament, and the public libraries in the kingdom. In Devon, as in other parts of the kingdom, the conqueror dispossessed the Saxons, and after appropriating part of their manors and estates to himself and family, he gave the rest to his Norman friends and followers, especially such as had distinguished themselves in clearing with their swords his way to the throne.
From DOMESDAY Book we find that in Devonshire the king then held 78 manors; the Bishop, 24; Jeffrey, Bishop of Constance, 91; Robert, Earl of Moreton, 82; Baldwin, the Sheriff. 181; Judhael de Totenais, or Totnes, 107; Wm. Capra, 44; Wm. de Faleise, 18; Wm. de Poilgi, 21; Walter de Douay, 28; Walter de Claville, 31; Goscelm, 27; Robert de Albemarle, 17; Robert Bastard, 9; Ralph Paganel, 10; Ralph de Pomerei, 54: Ruald Adobed, 30; Tetbald Fitz-Berner, 28; Alured Brito, 22; Odo Fitz-Gamelin, 24; Godbold Balistarius, 14; Nichls. Archibalistarius, 11; Wm. Hostiarus, 10; Godwin, 11; and Colvin, 8. The two latter were King's thanes, who, with 15 others, had 47 manors divided among them. The total number of manors in the county, as enumerated in Domesday Survey, are 1112, and among the owners at that period are many smaller proprietors, and ten churches, owning from one to six or eight manors each; but Tavistock church had 14, and Buckfastleigh church 12; and four manors were held by the three Saxon ladies, Godeva, Alveva, and Alfhilla. The greater part of the manors were held by under tenants, who rendered suit and service to the lords paramount. The chief landed property of the county was divided soon after the conquest into several great BARONlES, namely, Okehampton, Plympton, Totnes, Barnstaple, Dartington, Bradninch, Bampton, Harberton, Berry-Pomeroy, the Bishop of Exeter's, and the Abbot of Tavistock's. There does not exist any document to prove that any estates in the county remain in possession of descendants of the persons who held them at Domesday Survey; but it is not improbable that some of the ancient families, who, according to the custom of that period, took their names from the places of their residence, in the reign of King John, or that of Henry III., may have inherited their estates in direct descent from the Ralphs, Rogers, Walters, Williams, &c., who were sub-tenants in the reign of Wm. the Conqueror, under Baldwin the Sheriff, and other great lords paramount. In order to secure their newly acquired possessions, the Norman Barons and Chiefs built on their respective estates "strong and magnificent CASTLES, which might at once secure themselves, and keep the conquered English in awe." The largest of these castles were in the great baronies named above. Of some of these, as well as of several smaller fortresses in various parts of the county, there are still interesting remains.
EARLS OF DEVON. - Richard de Redvers, or Rivers, who obtained the great barony of Okehampton from Wm. II., was created Earl of Devon by Henry I., and the title was held by his descendants till the death of Baldwin, the eighth earl, in 1262, when his sister and heiress, Isabel de Redvers, succeeded as Countess of Devon. She married Wm. de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, and left only a daughter, who died without issue, in 1293. Hugh Courtenay, the sixth Baron and first Viscount Courtenay, of Powderham Castle, being descended from the sister of Baldwin de Redvers, was created Earl of Devon, in 1335, and died in 1340. Thomas, the sixth Earl, of the Courtenay family, was attainted and beheaded in 1461, when all his honours were forfeited. Humphrey Stafford, Baron Stafford of Suthwicke, was created Earl of Devon, in May, 1469, but was beheaded in the August following, when the title again became extinct; but it was restored to the Courtenays in 1485, when Edward Courtenay, grandson of Hugh, the third earl, was created Earl of Devon. He died in 1509, and was succeeded by his grandson, Henry, who was created Marquis of Exeter, in 1585, but being attainted and beheaded in 1539, all his honours became forfeited. His son, Edward, was restored in blood and honours, after suffering a long imprisonment in the Tower, and was created Earl of Devon, in 1553, but dying without issue, in 1556, the title became extinct. In 1603 Charles Blount, eighth Baron Mountjoy, was created Earl of Devon, but dying without lawful issue, the earldom for the sixth time became extinct. It was not revived till 1831, when Wm. Courtenay, Viscount Courtenay, the late Earl of Devon, established his claim to the earldom, by the decision of the House of Lords, as heir of Edward, who was created Earl of Devon, in 1553. He succeeded as Viscount Courtenay, in 1758, and died in 1835 when he was succeeded by his nephew, the present Rt. Hon. Wm. Courtenay, EARL OF DEVON and VISCOUNT COURTENAY, who was born in 1777, and was the eldest son of the late Rt. Rev. Henry Reginald Courtenay, D.D., who was Bishop of Exeter in the early part of the present century. The Earl resides at Powderham Castle, ancient seat of his family, (see page 412;) and his eldest son Viscount Courtenay, resides at the beautiful marine residence called the Moult, near Salcombe. (See page 531.) The ancient family of Courtenay took their name from the town of Courtenay, in France. Reginald, the immediate ancestor of the English branch, came to England with Henry II., in 1151, and having married the heiress of Robert de Abrincis, hereditary sheriff of Devon, Baron of Okehampton, and governor of Exeter Castle, his eldest son succeeded to those honours, and married a daughter (and eventually heiress,) of Wm. de Redvers, Earl of Devon. Reginald was Baron Courtenay, by tenure, in the reign of Richard I., and one of his descendants was created Viscount Courtenay, in 1762. Though they have suffered many reverses of fortune, the Courtenays have for many ages been a numerous, wealthy, and highly distinguished family in Devon. Wm. Courtenay, a distinguished prelate of the 14th century, was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1381 till his death, in 1396. Richard Courtenay, LL.D., was Bishop of Norwich from 1413 till 1415, and like his uncle, the Archbishop, was a violent opponent of Wickliffe's followers. Peter Courtenay, D.C.L., became Bishop of Winchester, in 1478, and died in 1492. He and the principal members of his family were zealous partisans of the Lancastrians, and are said to have been present with the Earl of Richmond, at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The title of DUKE 0F DEVOSHIRE has been held by the Cavendish family since 1694, and that of Earl of Devonshire since 1618, though they have no other connexion with the county. His Grace the present Duke of Devonshire resides at Chatsworth House, the splendid "Palace of the Peak," in Derbyshire.
The NOBILITY resident in or connected with Devonshire are, the Earl of Devon, as already noticed; the Duke of Somerset, owner of Berry-Pomeroy Castle, (see page 423;) the Duke of Bedford, who has large estates in the county, and an occasional seat at Endsleigh, near Tavistock; the Duke of Northumberland, who owns Werrington House, and has an estate in that neighbourhood; the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, of Mount Edgecumbe, near Plymouth; the Earl of Macclesfield, who has estates at Buckfastleigh, &c.; Earl Fortescue, of Castle Hill, near South Molton, now Lord Lieutenant of the county; the Earl of Morley, of Saltram, near Plymouth; Viscount Sidmouth, of Upottery Manor House; Viscount Exmouth, of Canon-Teign House; Baron Clinton, who has an occasional seat at Huish, near Hatherleigh; Baron Clifford, of Ugbrook Park, (see p. 398;) Baron Poltimore, of Poltimore and North Molton; Baron Ashburton, who takes his title from the town of Ashburton; Lord Cranstoun, owner of Sandridge, which was the seat of the late Lord Ashburton; Baron Teignmouth, an Irish Peer, whose title was taken from Teignmouth, in Devon, in 1797; Lord Kinsale, of Ringrone, near Salcombe; and Viscount Torrington, who takes his title from Torrington, in Devon; as the Marquis of Exeter does from the capital of the county. The late Lord Rolle, of Bicton House, died in 1842, without issue, as noticed at page 218, and this title, like many others which formerly existed in the county, is now extinct.
The 27 BARONETS of Devonshire are Prideaux, of Netherton Hall; Wrey, of Tawstock House; Pole, of Shute; Northcote, of Pynes; Chichester, of Youlston; Davie, of Creedy Park; Acland, of Killerton House and Fairfield; Carew, of Haccomb; Rogers, of Blatchford; Duntze, of Payford, and formerly of Rockbeare; Baker, of Loventor, in the parish of Berry Pomeroy; Palk, of Haldon House; Buller, of Lupton; Kennaway, of Escot House; Williams, of Clovelly Court; Millman of Woodland; Lethbridge, of Sandhill, Somerset; Lopes, of Maristow House; Louis, of Cadwell House; Duckworth, of Weir House, Topsham; Perring, formerly of Membland; Drake, of Nutwell Court; Newman, of Mamhead; Chichester, of Arlington; Elton, of Widworthy Court; Seale, of Mount Boone; and Wheler, of Torrington. These and the extinct baronetcies of the county are noticed in the parishes where their present or former seats are situated.
The Devonshire tenant, is at once n dairy farmer, a breeder or feeder of cattle, sheep, and pigs; and a grower of corn and cider; and this variety of occupation, arising naturally from the character of the climate and soil of the county, has given him a tone of intelligence and activity which is looked for in vain in other parts of the kingdom, where a monotonous routine narrows the intellect of the dairyman. Farms here are generally of moderate size; for although some farmers hold 700 or 800 acres in several separate farms, the great majority run from 50 or 60 to 200 or 300 acres. Farm buildings are often found collected in a village; the housing of four adjoining farms being sometimes inconveniently placed at their point of junction. The buildings are of every variety of character, from the antique and dilapidated, to the more modern and convenient. On badly managed estates, the farmer is often bound to uphold in wooden thatched houses, at a cost to himself of 10 per cent. on the rental of a small farm. The better class of farm buildings are generally in the form of a square, close all round, and entered on the south side through a large arched door, under the granary. Immediately opposite is the barn, cider cellar, &c., which usually occupy one side of the square, having the corn rick yard behind. Two sides are for the accommodation of cattle, the back walls being built close up to the eaves; but the front is in two stories, supported on strong posts, and open from the ground to the eaves; the lower story occupied by cattle; the upper kept as a store for their provender. The cows are usually kept in loose boxes; the fattening cattle generally tied by the neck. The fourth side of the square embraces the farm stable and waggon shed. The houses are generally conveniently situated outside the square; and many of them, on the estates of the Duke of Bedford, and other wealthy and liberal landowners, have lately been rebuilt, or enlarged and improved. The larger farm-houses, mainly of which are fine old mansions, formerly occupied by the lords of the manors, are provincially called Bartons. The soil is of various character; good turnip and barley land, of deep friable texture, are met with in continuous succession, and from these the cultivator reaps the best returns. The system of husbandry followed is the alternate one, varied by allowing the land to rest one or more years in grass, as many be thought best by the farmer. There is nothing particular in the management of the arable land of this large county, but it is generally well and deeply tilled, not very heavily manured, but managed, on the whole, where the tenants have sufficient capital, with much skill and sagacity. Two-horse ploughs are universal, and light carts and waggons. Oxen are occasionally used in the plough, two young ones and two old ones being yoked together. They are fed very cheaply, and will plough an acre per day. Sixteen to twenty-four bushels of wheat per acre may be reckoned an average produce for North Devon, and thirty-two bushels of barley. Stubble turnips are occasionally taken; but the general practice is a bare winter fallow in preparation for a root crop. In many districts of South Devon, the soil and climate are admirably suited for crop of early potatoes to be followed by turnips; or for producing crops of rye, winter vetches, &c., for spring feed. The dairy management in Devonshire is justly celebrated; the perfect cleanliness and freshness of the dairies forming a marked contrast with those of many other counties. Fresh butter, clouted cream, and junkets, are the products of the dairies, and great quantities of these delicious luxuries are sent to all the towns and bathing places of the county, and to London and other distant markets. The value of watered meadows is highly appreciated by the Devonshire farmers, advantage being taken of every little stream to increase the produce of the land. The warmth of the numerous valleys is highly favourable to rapid growth and their declivities afford a cheap and convenient means of laying on the water. The expense of cutting the gutters is about £2 per acre, and the annual cost of keeping open the water courses and laying on the water is about 5s. per acre. The increased produce is fully 100 per cent.; but this depends chiefly on the quality of the water applied, which is found to vary extremely. The cider orchard is another source of income to the Devonshire farmer, the value of which has decreased nearly a half within the last twenty years. An orchard produces 10 to 15 hogsheads a year, the selling price of which at present is 25s. to 30s. a hogshead, and the cost of preparing it 3s. to 5s. As much as 150 hogsheads is produced on some farms, half of which is consumed by the farm labourers. The wages of labourers vary from 7s. to 8s. and 9s. per week, with three pints or two quarts of cider daily, the men bringing in every morning their wooden bottle to receive their day's allowance. Task work is now much encouraged, and affords better wages to the industrious. The cottages of the labourers are many of them constructed of red earth, mixed with straw, commonly called cobb, and covered with reeds or straw thatch. When rough cast and kept dry, these kind of dwellings are very durable, the walls being generally from fourteen inches to two feet in thickness. The chief corn markets in the county are Exeter, Tavistock, Totnes, Kingsbridge, Plymouth, and Barnstaple. The Devonshire Agricultural Society was instituted in 1791, for the improvement of the soils and the vegetable and animal produce of the county; and there are now in various parts of the county about twenty other Agricultural Societies, and nearly as many Farmers' Clubs, having for their objects, improvements in the cultivation of the soil and the breeding of stock; and the encouragement of skill, industry, and economy among the labouring poor.
In some parts of the county, considerable attention is paid to the breeding of sheep. The established breed, reared chiefly on Dartmoor and Exmoor, is the middle woolled class, bearing a strong resemblance to the Dorsets; but many other kinds are also reared. The total stock is estimated at about 700,000, of which about 200,000 produce heavy fleeces of long wool. But the extensive pasture lands are most generally appropriated to the purposes of the dairy and the fattening of the North Devon Cattle, a very fine breed, with wide spreading horns, and of an uniformly light brown colour. This breed, for working, and for fattening, is allowed to be one of the most perfect in the kingdom; but they are not much esteemed for the dairy. The native breed of horses is very small, and resembles the Welsh and Highland breeds of cattle, but all the improved breeds of cattle, sheep, and horses, from various parts of the country, are to be found here. Among the natural vegetable productions of this county is the beautiful scarlet lichen of Dartmoor, formerly extensively used as a dye for cloth, and in the manufacture of orchal.
The soils of Devon are extremely various, and may generally be characterised according to the rock, or stratified substances which they cover, as granitic, slatery, calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, gravelly, and loamy. The poorest is the soil covering the granite of Dartmoor, which has also the disadvantage of a cold wet climate. That which lies on the slate district is more or less fertile, and fit for all purposes of agriculture. The most uniformly fertile soils are in the red sandstone district; but the richest are those occurring in contiguity with limestone or greenstone rocks, in many parts of the slate district; especially in that beautiful southern district, commonly called the South Hams and sometimes the "Garden of Devon", and having for its natural boundaries Dartmoor and the heights of Chudleigh on the north: the river Plym on the west: Torbay and Start Bay on the east: and Bigbury Bay and other parts of the coast of the English Channel, on the south. The red colour which characterises the best soils, both in the South Hams and the eastern division of the county, and which seems to be so closely connected with the principle of fertility, proceeds from an abundant mixture of iron, in a highly oxidated state. The soil of that part of the South Hams which is bounded by the Erme and Dart rivers, is general1y a rich friable loam, of a hazel nut brown colour, mostly on a substratum of slate; but that east of the Dart as far as Torbay, is richer and redder, and generally on a substratum of marble rock. There are extensive tracts of rich meadow and arable lands in the valley of the Exe, Taw, Teign, Otter, and other rivers. The Vale of the Exe, commonly called the Vale of Exeter, has in its northern parts an irregular billowy surface, presenting eminences of considerable magnitude; but its central and more southern parts preserve the vale character. Its northern boundaries are the hills that range from Clanaborough, by Halberton and Uffculm, to Blackdown, a dreary mountainous ridge, which, with its contiguous branches, skirts the eastern side of the vale. On the south-east it is bounded by the heights of Sidmouth, East-Down, and Woodbury; and on the west by the mountainous ridge of Haldon, and the undulating eminences that stretch towards Bow-Nymet. This vale is one of the most fertile parts of the county, and its most prevalent soils are strong red loam, shillet, or foliated clay, intersected with veins of ironstone, and a mixture of sand and gravel. North of Hatherleigh and Holsworthy, and eastward to Chumleigh, Bradninch, &c., the soil is chiefly clay; but north of this is a gravelly district adjoining both sides of Dartmoor. Towards Hartland Point, there is much clay and moorland; a vein of black soil runs through Filleigh and Swimbridge; and a narrow vein of red soil from North Molton to Challacombe. The rich red soil of the South Hams, which is of great depth, is sometimes worked as marl pits, and used most beneficially as manure for the poorer lands. The chief manures are lime and sea sand. Limestone is got in various parts of the county, and extensively burnt in kilns on the banks of the navigable canals and rivers.
The Climate of Devonshire is so mild on the southern coast that, in flourishing gardens, orange and lemon trees, myrtles, &c., grow in the open air, with little shelter during the winter. The laurels and bays of Devon are held to be the most beautiful evergreens in the world. Broad leaved myrtle trees have grown here to the height of 30 feet, with branches spreading nearly from the roots, where the stalk or trunk was from 1½ to 2 feet in circumference. Swallows have been seen feeding their young in the latter part of Sept.; and martins flying, during mild weather, at Christmas. The mean annual temperature, from eleven years' observation, was found to be 52 deg. 5 min. But from its advanced position in the ocean, the climate of Devon is unquestionably a moist one, especially in the vicinity of the mountainous districts, where the air is often cold and damp. Even the mild south-eastern parts of the county are often pervaded by the "Devonish drizzle," which is a rain so light as to deposit itself as a thick dew, attended by a grey cloudy sky; but these drizzles seldom continue for an entire day, and the accompanying warm temperature takes from them the usual injurious effects of damp weather in colder climates. Indeed, the climate of Devon is considered by medical men to be so healthy and auspicious to invalids, that a residence within its bounds is generally advised, in preference even to Lisbon or the South of France. Epidemics occasionally prevail, and in 1849 the cholera was very fatal at Plymouth, Devonport, and some other places.
DARTMOOR FOREST, the wildest and bleakest part of Devon, is an extensive and elevated tract of heath, morass, rocky tors and crags, and lofty moorland hills and dells - stretching about thirty miles in length from north to south, and 14 from east to west. The towns of Okehampton, Tavistock, and Moreton Hampstead are near its borders, and it extends northward to within a few miles of Plymouth. It comprises about 200,000 acres, of which 53,000 acres, in the central and most dreary part, are in Lidford parish. It belongs mostly to the Prince, of Wales, as part of the Duchy of Cornwall, but the outskirts and part of the hills are appendant to the surrounding manors, many of which have likewise the prescriptive right of common on the Forest, on paying an inconsiderable sum annually to the Duchy, under the name of Venville (fen field). The Duchy, however, possesses the right of stocking the forest by agistment, and for this purpose much of it is leased in districts to various persons who pasture the stock of the neighbouring parishes at low rates. During the last thirty years, many thousand acres of its outskirts, belonging to adjacent parishes, have been enclosed and cultivated, and other extensive tracts have been planted; but the central part, comprising more than 60,000 acres, is still nearly in a state of nature, and many of its eminences rise to the altitude of from 1500 to 1800 feet. On approaching this mountainous tract, the eye is bewildered by an extensive waste, exhibiting gigantic tors, large surfaces covered with vast masses of scattered granite, and immense rocks, have been precipitated from the steep declivities into the valleys. These huge and craggy fragments are spread confusedly over the ground, and have been compared to the ponderous masses ejected by volcanoes; to the enormous ruins of formidable castles; and to the wrecks of mountains torn piecemeal by the raging elements. Few places are really less known, and few are more deserving of attention than Dartmoor; and though a large portion of the high road which crosses it, presents an unvaried scene of solitariness and desolation, yet to those who pursue their investigation beyond the ordinary beaten track, much will be found to delight the artist, the poet, and the antiquary. The peculiar characteristics of Dartmoor are derived from the granite tors, which are found piled mass upon mass mostly upon the summits of its numerous heights; and the wild impetuosity of its numerous streams, which dash through narrow channels, between craggy hills and cliffs, and give rise to many of the larger and smaller rivers of the county. The numerous remains of rude stone altars, circles, obelisks, logans, and cromlechs scattered over the moor, and the names still attached to many of the tors, such as Bel-tor, Mis-tor, Ham-tor, &c., shew that it was one of the most favoured haunts of the Druids. From its lofty elevation, it is peculiarly the region of mists, storms, and tempests. The peaks of its mighty tors stand up many hundred feet above its lofty hills, and intercepting the moisture of the clouds, cause great quantities of rain to fall in and around the moor. The mist comes on at times so sudden and dense, that those who are overtaken in it, out of the beaten track, are sometimes lost, and even the moor men have great difficulty in regaining their habitations. But the climate is considered healthy, and it is said that persons born and bred here seldom or never die of pulmonary consumption. There are now but few trees on Dartmoor, except the lonely wood of Wistman, but immense trunks of oak and other trees have often been dug up in the peaty bogs and marshes in many of the romantic dells, as well as on some of the higher table lands. The peat is got extensively for fuel, and the heaths and commons afford good pasturage for sheep and cattle during summer. The delicacy and flavour imported to the flesh of the sheep by the sweet herbage of the moor is so highly prized, that Dartmoor mutton is sent to London and other distant markets. Wistman , or Wiseman's Wood, is about a mile north of Two Bridges, on a lofty and steep acclivity rising from the western bank of the river Dart, opposite Bairdown. It is supposed to have been one of the sacred groves of the Druids. The ascent to it is strewn all over with immense masses of granite, partly covered by a grove of dwarf oaks, so stunted in their growth by sweeping winds, that few are more than ten or twelve feet high, though their branches spread far and wide, and are twisted in the most fantastic manner, and in some places festooned with ivy, and other creeping plants. Their trunk and arms are embedded is a thick covering of velvet moss, and the view down the valley from some of the bare rocks is truly sublime. Crockerntor, celebrated as the place where the ancient stannary parliaments were held, is about a mile from Two Bridges. On the summit of this tor, the chief miners of Devon were formerly obliged to meet, and hold the stannary court, as noticed at page 28. On entering the moor from Newton Abbot, is Haytor, and the extensive granite works noticed at page 473. In ancient times it was called Solar-tor, being dedicated by the Druids to the worship of the sun. On the top of the loftiest peak is one of the rock basins found in many of the granite-crowned tors of Dartmoor. Looking hence into the wild solitude of the forest, are seen dark masses of granite piled on either side; huge blocks of the same, scattered on the brows of the hills; and in the distance are seen tor upon tor, each capped with irregular masses of granite, assuming the most grotesque forms. But turning his back to the moor, the spectator sees a magnificent panorama of one of the loveliest and most fertile parts of Devon; - the Teign flowing at his feet through a rich and beautiful valley, the Exe opening out its wide estuary towards the ocean; and, in the extreme distance, the blue waters of the channel, with the noble outline of shore from Berry Head to the coast of Dorsetshire. The secluded and romantic vale of Lustleigh, the Cleave, Becky Falls, Hountor, &c., are noticed at pages 475-'6, and the cromlechs, rocking stone, and other druidical remains, near Drewsteignton. at page 190. Some of the streams in the heart of the forest are crossed by ancient British Bridges, of the most primitive construction, each consisting of several piers, composed of massive pieces of granite rock, placed one above another, and each pier connected with the neighbouring one by an enormous slab of moorstone; thus forming a solid footway, which has borne for ages the rush of winter torrents, and the shock of time. On the road to Tavistock, the neighbourhood of Merriva1e Bridge affords a rich field for the exploration of the antiquary, being literally strewed with Celtic remains, cromlechs , track-ways, circles, and other vestiges of Druidism; Vixen Tor is a most picturesque object, and the tall granite crags which crown its lofty summit, resemble a castellated tower, frowning over the valleys beneath.
A little south of the high road, about 7 miles east of Tavistock, is the wildly secluded hamlet of Tor Royal, or PRINCE TOWN, and the extensive but now ruinous and deserted DARTMOOR PRISON OF WAR, which was erected in 1808-9, for the residence of prisoners of war, of whom it had often from 5000 to 10,000 guarded by from 300 to 500 soldiers. During the latter part of the last century, the late Mr. Gullet, and the late Mr. Bray, of Tavistock, made great improvements in this part of Dartmoor, bringing some portions into cultivation and planting others. The late Sir Francis Buller purchased Prince Hall estate of Mr. Gullet, greatly improved it, and made it his occasional residence. But the greatest improver of Dartmoor was the late Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt, Bart., who was seated at Tor Royal, and was for some time Lord Warden of the Stannaries and M.P. for Plymouth. It was through his suggestion that government erected the war prison here, for the accommodation of the numerous French and American prisoners who had till then crowded the prison ships of Plymouth. This prison consisted of five rectangular buildings, each 800 foot long and 50 broad, with two stories for the hammocks of more than 1500 prisoners; and a large loft above for exercise in inclement weather. There were two other spacious buildings, one used as the hospital, and the other as the quarters of the petty officers. Adjoining the prison was the Governor's House, and other buildings necessary for the civil establishment; and at the distance of a quarter of a mile were Barracks for about 500 soldiers. The space between the walls of the prison formed a military road round the whole. On this the guard paraded. The sentinels were posted on platforms commanding a complete view of the prison; and some idea of its extent may be formed from the circumstance of the watch-word being a quarter of an hour in passing round. The lofty walls which surrounded all the buildings formed a circle nearly a mile in circumference, enclosing an area of nearly 30 acres. The great iron gate on the western side is arched over with immense blocks of granite, on which is engraved the appropriate inscription, "Parcere Subjectis." Opposite this is a large reservoir, from which the prison was supplied with excellent water, obtained by a diversion of part of the river Walkham. Connected with the prison was a neat Chapel, built by the prisoners, and opened in 1813. It is still used as a chapel of ease for Dartmoor Quarter of Lidford Parish, in which Prince Town is situated, at the distance of ten miles S.E. of the mother church. During the war there were two large inns near the prison, and they still remain, - one of them being the Duchy Hotel, which was honoured by a visit from Prince Albert during his visit to Plymouth in 1846. A considerable number of tradesmen, necessary to supply the wants of so large a population, settled in the vicinity, besides the proprietors of the public bake-houses, slaughter-houses, and brewery; and a market was held in the prison every weekday to which produce was brought from Tavistock, Moreton, Chagford, &c. Many of the prisoners had prize money to receive from their own country, and others obtained money by the manufacture of various ornamental or useful articles, which they sold to the market people. Some of the prisoners also kept stores, and were trusted with stocks to the amount of from £20 to £30. In reference to these stores, the French are said to have been "very honest," but the Americans "great rogues." No. 4 prison was assigned entirely to blacks, on account of the dislike with which they were regarded by the other American prisoners. Oil lamps were placed at the corners of the prison buildings, and also on the walls, and were kept burning during the night. Some of the prisoners used to contrive to be supplied with a composition metal for the manufacture of base coin; and they managed to make in their hammocks 1s. 6d. and 3s. pieces, and even forged Bank of England and Local Bank Notes, which they passed off either in the prison market or through the medium of some of the soldiers, several of whom were transported for that offence. The French are said to have been much more orderly than the American prisoners, many of whom were really Englishmen. Attempts were often made by men of both parties to escape by undermining the walls, and they were sometimes successful. In April, 1815, an erroneous notion having got among the prisoners that peace had been proclaimed, a great number of the Americans made an attempt to escape at the time their dinners were served out; but the guard was immediately called in, and quelled the disturbance, after killing seven and wounding 31 others. After the termination of the war, this extensive prison, and most of the private dwellings in the neighbourhood, became unoccupied, but some of the houses were again tenanted after the commencement of the rail-way, or tram-road, which extends from Prince Town to Plymouth, and was constructed under acts passed in 1819, 1820, and 1821, for the purpose of affording an easy transit for the produce of the immense granite quarries of this part of Dartmoor, as well as for bringing up lime and other manure for the improvement of the land on either side, and coal, &c., for domestic use. Many plans have been suggested for appropriating the extensive prison to some useful purpose, either as a School of Industry, or an Establishment for Convicts, but these proposals have never been brought to maturity. Of late years it has fallen into a complete state of decay, proclaiming by its desolate and prostrate condition that a state of war no longer calls for its aid. At the present time, when the tide of emigration is flowing so rapidly from the British shores, it would, no doubt, be highly beneficial if Prince Albert, associated as he is with the Duchy of Cornwall, - to which this large portion of the Forest of Dartmoor belongs, - would institute a commission to devise a scheme, not only for the occupation of the prison but for the cultivation of the vast moors which surround it. Dartmoor was fixed on as the subject of the first prize poem by the Royal Literary Society, established in 1824; and the prize was adjudged to Mrs. Hemans. It is supposed to have been a royal forest, attached to the manor of Lidford, in the time of William of Conqueror. In 1238, the castle of Lidford and Dartmoor Chase, or Forest, was granted by Henry III, to his brother Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and they were afterwards permanently united to the Duchy of Cornwall.
STRATA, QUARRIES, &c. - From the confused intermixture of the strata in Devonshire, the operation of earthquakes and volcanoes is strikingly apparent. Granite occupies the central and most elevated portions of the county including all Dartmoor and the large district around it. Immense quantities of this durable stone are sent to Teignmouth and Plymouth for exportation to London and other distant places. Specimens of the red granite are exceedingly beautiful when polished. Laminated schistus is common to almost all parts of the county. S1ate occupies an extensive surface in the northern, southern, and eastern parts of the county. Transition limestone occurs in many detached parts of the county, but principally between Torbay and Plymouth; the whole coast between these points being composed of this rock. This limestone is extensively got both for agricultural and building purposes. Beautifully veined marble is worked near Torquay, Babbicombe, &c., into mantle-pieces, tablets, pillars, vases, and a variety of ornamental articles. (See pages 437 and 445.) Red sandstone occupies the district around Exeter, and most of the country around the hills of Haldon and Woodbury, as far as Torbay and Sidmouth. In some places it is sufficiently hard to serve as a durable building stone. The green-sand formation presents, on the confines of this county and Dorsetshire, many outlying masses forming considerable hills. Coal of very peculiar nature is obtained in the extensive peaty flat called Bovey-Heathfield, which was anciently covered by the tides. (See page 469.) The origin of this "Bovey-Coal" has occasioned much discussion among geologists; and is supposcd to consist of an imperfectly carbonised wood, analagous to oak and other trees. The coal strata alternate with those of clay, to the depth of about 70 feet. This coal is used in the neighbouring pottery, and also by the poor, and makes as strong a fire as oaken billets. Kerwan says it consists of the wood of a submerged forest, penetrated with petrol or bitumen, and frequently containing pyrites, alum, and vitriol. Pyrites are obtained in various parts of the county, and are not unfrequently found in globular balls of different sizes. The fine potters' clay, near King's Teignton, &c., is extensively got for the Staffordshire and other potteries, where it is used in the manufacture of china. A bed of pipe clay, so impregnated with iron as to be fit only for making pipes, runs under the beds of potters' clay, lying east of the Bovey coal strata. White quartz and sand are found under this; and in various parts of the county are heterogeneous formations, intermixed with those already named.
MINES AND ORES. - Devonshire participates in the celebrity of Cornwall as a great mining district, producing copper, tin, lead, and other metals. Though its mining operations are now greatly inferior to those of Cornwall, they were in early times much more extensive, for we find that in 1213, the duty on tin payab]e to the Earl of Cornwall, was farmed at £200 for Devon, and only at 200 marks for Cornwall. The scale was turned in 1479, when the Earl's mining dues were £166. 9s. 5½d. for Devon, and £1620. 17s. 11d. for Cornwall. In 1838, previous to the abolition of the tin coinage duties, they amounted to £193. 2s. 10½d. for Devon, and £14,762. 4s. 10¾d. for Cornwall; but it must be observed that the duchy dues on Cornish tin were 4s. per cwt., and on Devonshire tin only 1s. 6d. The tin coined (or smelted and assayed) at Morwell-ham, in 1838, consisted of 82 blocks of grain or stream tin, and 674 blocks of common tin, each weighing about 3¼ cwt. In 1838, the tin coinage duties were commuted. The Phoenicians traded with this part of Britain for tin before the invasion of the Romans; and there are still to be seen in this county vestiges of the old Phoenician smelting houses, called by the miners Jews' Houses. Remains of ancient stream works are found in Dartmoor, and in all parts of the granite district, where the tin, copper, &c., are chiefly found. Although the tin works of Devon were mostly abandoned after the Cornwall mines became productive, some of the old tin, copper, and lead mines have been re-worked, and several new ones opened during the present century, as noticed at pages 188, 190, 192, 462, 468, 471, 529, 585, 603, 609, and 624, where it will be seen that portions of silver are extracted from some of the ores, and that gold has been occasionally found. (See page 610.) The richest and most profitable copper mine in the county is he [sic] Devonshire Great Consols, or Wheal Maria, noticed at page 624. The metallic veins, or lodes, in general consist of crystalized ores, apparently precipitated from water which had held them in solution; or of larger deposits in the faults or dislocations in the various strata, produced probably by volcanic action. The argentiferous lead-lodes of Combemartin, occur in beds immediately below the slate, and those of Beer-Alston cut through the slate, and are partly calcareous. Granite, or its modification, elvan, occurs near the copper and tin ores; and lead, antimony, manganese, iron, and zinc, are found at a distance from the granite or elvan, The great stanniferous district in Devon is Dartmoor, where the granite rock itself is sometimes impregnated with metal. North of the Tavistock mines are the lodes of Wheal Betsey and Lidford; and to the south are the argentiferous lead mines of Beer-Alston, where the metalliferous country runs south-west into Cornwall. Valuable manganese mines have been worked east of Dartmoor, at Doddiscombs1eigh and Ashton; and fine iron ore is got near Ilsington, Brixham, and Hennock, (see pages 425 and 471,) and in some other parts of the county. About Bideford is some clay-iron ore mixed with anthracite. The ores of manganese and antimony are chiefly found in those portions of the grauwacke, which are associated with the trappean rocks. In 1811, there appears to have been only seven copper mines open in the county, and the number of tons which they respectively produced in that year were - Wheal Friendship, 110; Wheal Crebor, 1308; Crowndale, 863; East Crowndale, 913; Ding-Dong, 250; Wheal Hope, 6; and Wheal Hockworthy, 10 tons. At page 624, it will be seen that a large mine near Tavistock, now yields about 1350 tons of copper ore per month. In 1785, the lead mines in Devon yielded 6500 ounces of silver; but about 20 years ago, Wheal-Betsey mine alone yielded about 5000 ounces per ann. Magnetie iron ore of good quality has been worked near South Brent, and a piece of it was found to move a needle placed at the distance of nine feet. Various other mineral substances, such as cobalt, arsenic, yellow ochre, &c., are found in the county.
ORGANIC REMAINS. - The transition limestone, or marble rock, at Torquay, contains several species of madrepores, turbinoliae, flustra, orthocerae, producti crinoidea, &c. The strata of lias, which extend from Lyme Regis into Devonshire, contain the remains of Icthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, two genera of animals related to the lizard family. The same strata also contain the remains of fish and crustacea, and abound in shells, chiefly of the genera plagiostorna, gryphea, nautilus, and ammonites. They also contain four species of pentacrinites, viz., capul medusa, briarcus, subangularis, and basaltiformis. The green sand strata of Blackdown and Haldon are very rich in shells of mollusca; which, in the former places occur, changed into a delicate hydrophanous calcedony, and in the latter, into an opaque red or yellow jasper, frequcntly imbedded in a matrix of green chert. Mr. James Parkinson and Mr. J. Sowerby describe the following species from Blackdown: - Trigonia eccentrica, daedalea, spinosa, sinuata, alaeformis, rudis, affinis; Cuculia glabra, decussata, carinata, fibrosa; Curdium hillanum, proboscideum, unbonatum; Venus plana, angulata, castrensis; Chama plicata; Pecten quadriscostata, quinquecostata; Corbula gigantea, laevigata; Auricula incrassata; Hamites spinulosum; Nucula margaritacea; Ammonites goodhalli; Natica caurena; and two species of Rostellariae. There occur also various species of Turbo, Murex, Cerithium, Nautilus, &c., and a highly interesting species of Alcyoniam. The chalk at Beer contains the remains of a variety of Pentacrinites, Caput Medusae, Terebratulae, Pectens, &c. On Haldon, and in the flinty strata of its vicinity, the echinus is frequently found; tubipores have been met with near Newton Abbot, and shel1s of varions species at Hembury Fort; many of the latter bearing a perfect resemblance to some of the kinds brought from the West Indies. At Chapel-Farm, in Cruwys- Morchard, there was found some years ago a great quantity of remarkable substances, called fossil bacon. They were found on digging a pond; and at the depth of 12 feet, several perfect bodies of hogs were found, reduced to the colour and substance of Egyptian mummies. The bones of the elephant, hyaena, and other large animals, have been found in Kent's Hole, near Babbicombe, and in other caverns and cavities of the limestone rock, in various parts of the county.
Mineral Waters are very numerous in Devon, and are chiefly of the chalybeate kind, but none of them are now in medicinal repute. The strongest springs of this description rise at Gubb's Well, near Cleave; at Bella-Marsh, near King's Teignton; and at Bampton. That at the latter place is said to be more strongly impregnated with iron than any other in the county. Springs near Totnes, and at Brook, near Tavistock, and at St. Sidwell's, near Exeter, were formerly much resorted to for their medicinal virtues. At Ashburton, and near the Dart, are springs saturated with ochre. A pool in one of the Bovey coal pits is warm, and covered with an ochreous incrustation. Ley-well, at Brixham, formerly ebbed and flowed, but has been cut through and destroyed ; and there was a pond of the same nature at Tidwell, near Otterton.
MANUFACTURES. - Devon has long been celebrated for its woollen and lace manufactures; one or the other of which was formerly to be found in most parts of the county, but both have greatly declined here during the present century, owing to the amazing extension of machinery and the factory system, in the Midland and Northern Counties, which have nearly annihilated these branches of industry in their primitive seats, where the old domestic system was adhered to. There are still several large woollen mills and several thousand looms in different parts of the county, employed in making serges, blankets, and other coarse woollen cloths. Cloth was woven at Exeter and Chudleigh in the reign of Edward I. Dartmoor wool, however, was at that time exported; but Edward III. prohibited the exportation of wool, and encouraged the immigration of foreign weavers, many of whom settled in this county. In the 15th century, friezes, Tavistocks, or western dozens and other sorts of coarse cloths, were exported by the Devonshire merchants to Brittany. In the reign of Edward IV., an Italian taught the English the art of weaving kerseys; and in the early part of the 16th century, "Devonshire kerseys," were an important article of commerce to the Levant. The woollen manufacture was greatly extended here in the reign of Elizabeth, as noticed at page 63, and continued to flourish till the close of last century. The market for wool and cloths, which had been long at Crediton, was removed to Exeter, in 1538. Totnes produced a sort of coarse cloth, called Pynn-whites, not made elsewhere. Crediton was famous for fine spinning. Barnstaple and Torrington furnished bayes, frizadoes, &c., and Pilton, cottons and linings, "so coarse a stuffe, that there was a vae (a woe) pronounced against them in these words :- Woe unto you, ye Piltonians, that make cloth without wool." Many other places contributed to the great Exeter mart, which ranked next Leeds in 1759, and exported no fewer than 330,411 pieces of cloth, in 1768, but its trade suffered considerably during the American war. In 1789, the East India Company bought here 121,000 pieces of serges, &c.; of which 600 pieces of broads were made at Crediton, and the rest chiefly at Ashburton, Tavistock, Modbury, North Tawton, and Newton Bushel. While they had the monopoly of the tea trade, they were enabled to force their serges or long ells, on the Chinese in exchange, and they were induced to do this on several occasions, at the request of government, in order to relieve the weavers and manufacturers of this Country in times of distress. From 1705 to 1805, this company annually purchased here from 250,000 to 300,000 pieces. In 1838, there were still in the county 39 woollen mills, and more than 3000 looms employed in weaving serges. Of the latter there were in and around Ashburton, 660; Okehampton, 530; Collumpton, 500; Buckfastleigh, 700; Exeter, 800; Totnes,230; South and North Molton, 200; Crediton and North Tawton, 150; and Tavistock, 100. The manufacture of blankets has been introduced into Devonshire since the expiration of the East India Company's trading monopoly, and many of the women of Devon, previously employed in weaving serges, have since been employed in glove making, &c. Since the repeal of the prohibition to export English wool, great quantities have been exported from Devonshire, chiefly to France, for the manufacture of finer articles than serges. In 1838, there were in Devon three flax mills and three silk mills. The latter are at Church Stanton, Aylesbeer, and Ottery St. Mary, and employ upwards of 400 hands. From 1755 till 1835, there was a celebrated carpet manufactory at Axminster. (See page 357.) Bone or thread lace, commonly called Honiton lace, is extensively made in the town and neighbourhood of Honiton, and in many other parts of the county, and gives employment to many thousand women and children, as noticed at page 364. At Tiverton and Barnstaple are two extensive lace factories, employed in making bobbin-net, &c. (See page 308.) The former was established in 1815, and the latter in 1822. Blond lace is also made here, and there are in the county several potteries, many large malting and tanning establishments, several large foundries and machine works, &c., &c.
RIVERS. - In Dartmoor, the great headland of Devon, some of its principal and many of its smaller rivers have their sources; all radiating from within the circuit of a few miles, on this central fountain head, and flowing down the slopes of its high summits to almost every point in the compass. Of the most important of these, the Dart, so termed from the rapidity of its course, (and hence the name Dartmoor,) runs southeast from Okement hill, in a winding course to Totnes; and after a course of about 35 miles, gradually widens into a deep navigable estuary, and falls into the English Channel at Dartmouth haven. Its course is tidal for 10½ miles. The East and West Okement, though they rise near the same hill as the Dart, take an opposite course, and unite at Okehampton, whence the stream runs northward to the Torridge, a large river which rises in the north-west angle of the county, and after taking a very tortuous course, flows past Torrington to Bideford, where it becomes navigable for large vessels ; and after a course of 45 miles, issues into an estuary at Barnstaple Bay, common to it and the Taw. Its course is tidal for about 15 miles. The Taw rises in Dartmoor, and flows northward past Chulmleigh, where it meets the Little Dart, and then, pursuing a north-west course, receives various tributary streams, among which is the Mole, from Exmoor and South Molton; and after a course of about 45 miles, flows, by Barnstaple, into the Bristol Channel, through the same estuary as the Torridge. It is tidal in its course for 11½ miles, and large vessels come up to Barnstaple. The Tavy rises in the centre of Dartmoor, and flows past Tavistock, to the Tamar, a large river which rises near the north-western extremity of the county, and flows southward to Plymouth Sound, forming, with a few slight exceptions, the boundary of Devon and Cornwall, in its course of nearly fifty miles, in which it is navigable to Launceston, whence a canal extends northward in the valley to Bude Haven, with a branch to Holsworthy, &c. There is also a canal from the Tamar to Tavistock. The Teign originates from two branches, called the East and West Teign, both rising in the most elevated district of Dartmoor. The former is the main branch, and flows eastward between the Dart and the Exe, from Chagford to Dunsford, and thence southward to Chudleigh, below which it receives the West Teign, or the Wrey. Passing southward to Newton Bushel, the Teign turns eastward, and runs in a fine estuary to Teignmouth, about five miles below, where its waters are lost in the English Channel. The Plym rises in Dartmoor, and runs southward to the Plymouth, in a course of about 15 miles. it mingles its waters with those of the Tamar, in Plymouth Sound. The Erme and the Aven, between the Plym and the Dart, are also considerable rivers, rising in Dartmoor, and flowing southward to the English Channel. The Exe, as noticed at pages 63-'4, has its sources in the forest of Exmoor, in Somersetshire, within a few miles of the Bristol Channel, and about 36 miles N. by W. of Exeter, to which it flows in a sinuous course, by Dulverton and Tiverton. It flows from Exeter to Topsham, where it expands into a noble estuary, extending nearly six miles, to Exmouth, where it falls into the English Channel. It is navigable for ships to Topsham, and from thence there is a broad and deep channel to Exeter. The whole course of the Exe, including all its windings, is about seventy miles. Its principal tributaries are the Batham, Loman, Creedy, Clist, Culme, and Kenn. The Batham, rising near Clayhanger, falls into the Exe about a mile below Bampton. The Loman, rising in Somersetshire, passes by Up Lowman and Craze Lowman, and falls into the Exe at Tiverton. The Creedy, which rises near Cruwys-Morchard, passes near Crediton, Newton St. Cyres, &c., and falls into the Exe, near Cowley Bridge. The Clist, after passing through the six parishes to which it gives name, falls into the Exe, at Topsham. The Culme, rising in Somersetshire, passes Church Stanton and Hemiock, through Culmstock and Uffculme, near Collumpton and Stoke Canon, and falls into the Exe, near Cowley Bridge. The Kenn rises near Dunchidiock, and running by Kenford and Kenn, falls into the Exe, between Kenton and Powderham. The little river Yeo falls into the Creedy, near Crediton. The Axe rises in Dorsetshire, and near Ford Abbey becomes for a while the boundary of the two counties; thence it runs to Axminster, and after passing between Colyton and Musbury, falls into the sea between Seaton and Axmouth. The smaller rivers Yarty and Coly fall into the Axe. The Otter rises in Somersetshire, near Otterford, and flows thence to Up-Ottery, Honiton, Ottery St. Mary, and Otterton, below which it opens into a short but broad estuary, which terminates in the English Channel, near Budleigh-Salterton. The small river Sid rises near Sidbury, and passing through Sidford, falls into the sea at Sidmouth. The Harburn, rising on the edge of Dartmoor, runs near Harberton, and falls into the Dart, near Ashprington. The small rivers which fall into the are the Wick, Derle, Deer, Cary, Claw, Lyd, and Tavy, on the western side of the county. The little river Waldron, which rises near Bradworthy, runs near Sutcombe and Milton Damerel, and falls into the Torridge, near Bradford. The Little Dart rises near Rackenford and passing near Witheridge, Worlington, and Chulmleigh, falls into the Taw below the latter place. The small river Bray rises near Parracombe, and passing East Buckland, King's Nympton, &c., falls into the Taw, near Newnham Bridge. The Lyn rises on Exmoor, and after a course of ten miles, falls into the Bristol Channel, near Linton.
Navigable Rivers, Creeks, and Canals. - The Exe is navigable for large vessels up to Topsham, whence there is a canal for sloops and barges up to Exeter. The Teign is navigable to Newton Bushel, between which and King's Teignton it is joined by the Teigngrace Canal. The Dart is navigable from Dartmouth to Totnes. A fine estuary runs inland about five miles, from Salcombe to Kingsbridqe, and is navigable for sloops and barges This estuary has several navigable creeks, branching from either side, and affording the adjacent parishes the means of importing lime, sand, and other manures, and of exporting their produce. The Yealm is navigable for sloops and small brigs, to Kitley Quay. The Tamar in navigable to New Quay, 24 miles from Plymouth, for vessels of 130 to 140 tons; and up to Morwellham Quay, for vessels of 200 tons. The Plym is navigable at Catwater, near its mouth, for men of war; and vessels of 40 or 50 tons go up as far as Crabtree. The Torridge becomes navigable for boats at Wear Gifford, and for ships of large burthen at Bideford. The Taw is navigable to Barnstaple, for vessels of 140 tons; and up to New Bridge for small craft; but large vessels can anchor within three or four miles of Barnstaple. Exeter Canal is noticed at page 64; and the Grand Western Canal, at page 305. The latter was intended to pass through a great part of Devon, but only extends to Tiverton. In 1792, an Act of Parliament was passed for making the Stover Canal, from the Railway of Haytor Granite Works, near Bovey Tracey, to the Teign, near Newton Abbot; with a collateral cut to Chudleigh. The former was finished in 1794, but the latter not till 1843. (See pages 398 and 455.) The Tavistock Canal, to Morwellham Quay, on the Tamar, was constructed under the powers of an act passed in 1803, but was not completed till 1817, as noticed at page 624. In 1819, an Act of Parliament was obtained for making the Bude Canal from Bude Haven, on the Cornish coast, to the Tamar Valley, and thence eastward to Thornbury, &c., in Devon; and southward, down the valley, to Launceston. At Burmsdon, a branch of this canal proceeds to Moreton Mill, and to a large reservoir on Longford moor; and from Veale a branch extends to Vorworthy. There are inclined planes, and a tunnel of considerable length, in its route to Thornbury. One of its chief objects is to facilitate the introduction of Welsh coal into Devon.
FISHERIES. - Great quantities of salmon and salmon-trout are taken in the principal rivers of Devon ; but those taken in the Exe and Dart are the most esteemed. Salmon-peal is found in the Tavy, Tamar, Erme, Dart, Mole, and Otter; and lamprey in the Exe and Mole. The Salmon-Weir in the Tavy, near Buckland Abbey, is a work of considerable magnitude, thrown across the river in a part where two projecting rocks serve as buttresses to the masonry, which is built somewhat arch- wise, to resist the pressure of the waters in times of flood, when they collect from the slopes of Dartmoor, and rush down with great impetuosity. Turbot, plaice, soles, whiting, mullet, mackerel, pilchards, gurnet, flounders, herrings, sprats, crabs, lobsters and other fish abound in the Channels opposite both coasts. Brixham, in Torbay, is the largest fishing port in Devon, as noticed at page 425 and after it ranks Plymouth, Teignmouth, Lympstone, Topsham, Dartmouth, Salcombe, and Ilfracombe. There are extensive oyster beds at Starcross, Newton-Ferrers. Lympstone, and Topsham. The torpedo, or electric ray, has occasionally been taken in Torbay and the river Dart. The opah , or king-fish, is very rare, hut one was taken at Brixham, in 1772, weighing 140 lbs., and its flesh "looked and tasted like beef." The sepia, or cuttle fish, is frequently taken in nets by fishermen off Teignmouth and Slapton Sands. Dartmouth, Teignmouth, Torquay, Bideford, Topsham, and Plymouth, formerly sent many vessels to the Newfoundiand fishery, but that trade has considerably declined. and only the three first named places are now partially engaged in it.
ROADS - The highway returns show an extent of roads in Devon far greater than that of any other county in England, except Yorkshire. In the three years ending October, 1814, the turnpike roads and paved streets were estimated at 776 miles; and all other highways, for wheeled carriages, at 5936 miles; the total expenditure on which was £44,658. In 1838, there were in the county 29 turnpike trusts, the total income of which was £62,024. 6s. 1d., of which £11,187. 4s. 4d. was expended on improvements. In 1889, the expenditure on 6898 miles of highway was £37,356. The great roads which cross the county from Somerset and Dorset, to Cornwall, meet at Exeter. The roads which radiate from that city and the principal towns in the county, and the cross roads interlacing them, are very numerous. From the high fences and narrowness of many of the roads, together with the perpetual recurrence of hills and valleys, all extensive prospects are often shut out, but on the tops of the hills, and where there are no enclosures, there are many delightful views over the beautiful vales and coasts in their vicinity. Devonshire abounds in all parts with the best materials for the formation of good roads, and for keeping them in good repair. The principal roads are generally in excellent condition; but many of the others are narrow, with high banks and hedges, and have the disadvantage of frequent steep ascents, even where they might have been easily carried along the sides of the hills, or through the valleys, with but little loss in distance, and a great saying in labour, and the wear and tear of carriages.
RAILWAYS - There are in the county two old railways, or tram roads, on which waggons are drawn by horses. One of these is the Dartmoor and Plymouth Railway, which extends about 18 miles southward from the extensive granite quarries, near Prince Town, in Dartmoor. It was made, under an act passed in 1819, and amended by two other acts, passed in 1820 and 1821. It has a short branch to the lime works at Catdown, and to Sutton Pool, at Plymouth. The other mineral line is on the other side of Dartmoor, and extends about six miles, from Haytor Granite Works to the Stover Canal. By means of this tram road and canal, immense quantities of granite are carried down to Teignmouth, for exportation; and coal, manure, &c., are taken up for the use of the neighbourhood. Devon is now crossed in a south-westerly direction, by the BRISTOL AND EXETER and the SOUTH DEVON RAILWAYS, which form a continuous line for the transit of passengers and goods, and have Stations in this county at Tiverton Road, Collumpton, Hele, Exeter, St. Thomas's, Starcross, Dawlish, Teignmouth, Newton Abbot, Totnes, Brent, Kingsbridge Road, Ivybridge, Plympton, and Plymouth. There are also branch railways to Tiverton, Torquay, and Crediton, but the latter is not yet opened. Other branches are projected, as well as a line to cross the county in a northwest direction, from Crediton to Barnstaple and Bideford, under the name of the Taw Vale Railway. A few miles at each end of the latter have been constructed, but owing to the depressed state of railway property, many years may elapse before this line and the contemplated branches are completed. The projected line from Exeter to Topsham and Exmouth is not yet made, as stated at pages 59 and 178; and the Cornwall Railway, intended to pass from Plymouth to Falmouth, is still to commence, though an act was obtained for making it a few years ago. By means of the South Devon and Bristol and Exeter lines, and the Great Western Railway, - extending from London to Bristol, - Devonshire is connected with the great net work of railways, now traversing Britain in almost every direction.
Brian Randell, 19 Jul 1998
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