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THE BOROUGH OF PLYMOUTH

From White's 1850 History, Gazetteer and Directory of Devonshire

PLYMOUTH, DEVONPORT, and STONEHOUSE, are commonly called "The Three Towns," though they adjoin each other, and form one of the largest sea ports and principal naval and military stations in England, situated at the south west corner of Devon. They extend about three miles from east to west, and comprise, with their northern suburbs of Morice Town and Stoke, about 90,000 inhabitants. Plymouth is on the east, Stonehouse in the centre, and Devonport on the west; and their eastern, southern, and western sides, are skirted and deeply indented by the broad, deep, and extensive creeks and harbours in the estuaries of the Tamar and Plym, which meet in Plymouth Sound, and take the names of Catwater, Sutton Pool, Mill Bay, Stonehouse Pool, and Hamoaze; to the latter of which the great naval arsenal of Devonport Dock Yard presents its massive sea wall and numerous docks, slips, &c, in a semicircular range of more than half a mile, exclusive of the Gun Wharf, and the large Government Steam Yard on the north, opposite Torpoint, to which there is a steam ferry across the estuary of the Tamar. Plymouth Citadel and Mill Bay front that broad arm of the English Channel called the Sound, in which the force of the Atlantic surges is considerably broken by a stupendous breakwater, while the harbours and creeks on either side are shut in from the violence of ocean storms, on the west by that bold peninsular range of hills, extending from Cornwall to Mount Edgcumbe, and that long projection of Stonehouse terminating at the Devil's Point, opposite Mount Edgcumbe; and on the east by the bold promontory of Mount Batten, at the entrance to Catwater, the Mouth of the river Plym, from which Plymouth has its name. The South Devon Railway extends from Plymouth to Exeter, and connects the three towns with the great railways traversing most parts of the kingdom; but the line intended to pass hence through Cornwall to Falmouth, &c., is not yet made, though an act for its construction was obtained a few years ago. The ground on which the most populous parts of Plymouth and Stonehouse are built, falls towards the centre, making a sort of hollow, extending from east to west; from which the suburbs rise to a considerable elevation on the north, and to the high ground called the Hoe, overlooking the Sound on the south. The site of Devonport is more elevated, but its face has a gradual southern inclination, and on three sides it falls abruptly to the water. The northern suburbs at Higher Stoke rise much higher, and command delightful views of the towns, harbours, headlands, and the castellated mansion and sylvan grounds of Mount Edgcumbe. Devonport, Morice Town, Stoke, and Higher Stoke, form the PARISH OF STOKE DAMEREL, which had 33,820 inhabitants in 1841, of whom more than 25,000 were in Devonport, 306 in the Parish Workhouse, 1148 in seven Barracks, 478 in the Convict Hulk, and 155 in Stoke Military Hospital. This parish forms the Municipal Borough of Devonport; but the Parliamentary Borough includes also the PARISH OF EAST STONEHOUSE, which in 1841 had 9712 inhabitants, including 102 persons in the Parish Workhouse, 437 in the Royal Marine Barracks, and 307 in the Royal Naval Hospital. This parish maintains its poor under the provisions of the New Poor Law, and Stoke Damarel Parish is now petitioning to be placed under the control of that act, though neither parish is or wishes to be united with any other for the support of its poor. The BOROUGH OF PLYMOUTH comprises the two parishes of St. Andrew and Charles the Martyr, except Pennycross Chapelry in the former, and Compton Gifford tithing in the latter, which are in Roborough Hundred and in Plympton St. Mary Union, as afterwards noticed. The borough parts of these parishes maintain their poor conjointly, under a local act, and their population in 1841 amounted to 36,520 souls, of whom 12,956 were in Charles the Martyr's parish, and 23,564 in St. Andrew's. The latter included 219 persons in the Royal Marine Barracks; 741 in the Citadel Barracks; 332 in Plymouth Workhouse; 79 in the Chatham Hulk; 56 on Drake's Island; and 320 poor Irish waiting for emigration ships. The total population of the two boroughs was 61,212 in 1821; 76,001 in 1831; and 80,052 in 1841, and it may be now estimated at about 90,000 souls. The four parishes in the two Boroughs are in the Archdeaconry of Totnes and Deanery of Plympton, and in the Southern Parliamentary Division of Devon, and in Plymouth Polling and County Court District. Stonehouse is in Roborough Hundred and Petty Sessional Division, but the municipal boroughs have separate quarter and petty sessions.
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PLYMOUTH

PLYMOUTH, as already stated, is the most eastern of the "three towns" and occupies an important maritime situation at the head of Plymouth Sound, which here extends its expansive waters into the noble harbours of Catwater, Mill Bay, Sutton Pool, Stonehouse Pool, and Hamoaze, and receives on the east and west the broad estuaries of the Plym and the Tamar. It is distant 44 miles S.W. of Exeter; 29 miles W. of Dartmouth; 15 miles S. of Tavistock; 5 miles E.S.E. of Saltash; and 216 miles W.S.W. of London. The Borough increased its population from about 16,000 souls in 1801, to 36,520 in 1811, and has now upwards of 40,000, including the soldiers in barracks, and others attached to the naval and military establishments. It has now about 5500 houses, of which no fewer than 500 were built in 1846-7. Its street arrangements extend about a mile each way, and its site ascends on a bold and broken gradient, back from Mill Bay and Sutton Pool, and the intermediate headland occupied by the Citadel and the Hoe; and is such as to render some of the streets steep, and the entrance from the north east rather inconvenient; but many of the streets and some of the entrances to the town have been much improved during the last 20 years; and the new buildings in many of the older parts have imparted an air of renovation and beauty to what was before an assemblage of architectural craziness and disorder. There are now in the suburbs many handsome villas and rows of neat houses; and in the town are several good streets and many commodious public buildings, well-stocked shops, and large inns and taverns. The large modern town of Devonport which is separated from Plymouth by that of Stonehouse, was called Plymouth Dock till 1824, as afterwards noticed. In the Saxon era, the site of Plymouth was called Tameorwerth, but after the Conquest, it acquired the name of Suttton, or South Town, in reference to its more ancient neighbour Plympton. In the reign of Edward I., one part of it was called Sutton Prior and the other Sutton Valletort; the north part of the town being on the lands of the Prior of Plympton, and the south part on the estate of the Valletorts. These names were relinquished in the reign of Henry VI. for the more appropriate appellation of Plym- mouth. In the beginning of the reign of Edward II., great disputes arose between the Prior of Plympton and the king, respecting certain rights and immunities, claimed by the former, but always contested by the Crown. At length, by a writ issued from the Exchequer in 1313, a jury was summoned to examine the various claims, and determine the differences between the King and the Prior. By their decision, the Prior, in consideration of a fee-farm rent of £29. 6s. 8d. to be annually paid into the Exchequer for the use of his Majesty, was confirmed in the exercise of various privileges, among which were - the right of granting leases of houses as lord of the fee; of having a manor view of frank-pledge, assize of bread and beer, a ducking-stool and pillory, and the fishing of the waters from Catwater to the head of the river Plym. In the reign of Edward III., the manor was given to John de Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, who had many disputes with the Prior, whose claims were again confirmed by a special jury. About this period, Plymouth, which had been much improved under the liberal building leases granted by the Prior, became an object of jealousy to the French, who landed here and endeavoured to destroy the town by fire, but were repulsed, with the loss of 500 men, by Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, under whose conduct the surrounding gentry and their vassals had associated with celerity. In a second attempt, in the 6th of Henry IV., the French were more successful. Landing at the head of Sutton Pool, near Britonside, they burnt upwards of 600 houses; but failing in their attempt to destroy the castle and the higher parts of town, they retired to their ships, and proceeded to Dartmouth, where Mons. du Chastel, one of their commanders, and about 400 men, were killed, and 200 others were made prisoners. (See page 487.) From the time of this occurrence till the reign of Henry VI., the town dwindled to a mere fishing village, but it was then improved by the Prior of Plympton, who rebuit [sic] many of the houses at his own expense; and by liberally granting certain privileges, and leases at small fines, occasioned a considerable increase of inhabitants. Trade revived, and the spirit of industry and enterprise being awakened, its capacious harbours were again frequented by merchant and other vessels. About 1438, the inhabitants petitioned Henry VI. for a charter of incorporation, and also that they might have a wall round the town, for its better defence against the irruption of an enemy. In the following year, the king granted a charter which incorporated the inhabitants by the name of the Mayor and Commonality of Plymouth and divided the town and borough into four wards, called Old Town, High Vintry, Low Vintry, and Looe street Wards; each to have a Captain and inferior officers, but all to be under the control of the Mayor. In the 4th of Edward IV. a confirmation of the liberties and franchises of Plymouth was granted to the Mayor and Commonalty, on condition of their paying a fee-farm rent of £41 to the Prior of Plympton, and one of ten marks to the Prior of Bath; and from this period "the lordship of the fee of the manor of Sutton Prior and Valletort (now Plymouth,) was vested in the Corporation of Plymouth, together with the assize of bread and beer, fishery of the waters, view of frank-pledge, tolls of the markets and fairs, and the use of the ducking stool and pillory. In the reign of Elizabeth, a new charter was granted to the borough, through the solicitation of the celebrated Admiral Sir Francis Drake, by which the former charters were confirmed, and the Corporation declared to consist of a mayor, 12 aldermen, 24 common councilmen, and an indefinite number of freemen, with a recorder, town clerk, coroner, and a number of inferior officers. The above-named gallant Admiral was born near Tavistock, and was the first Englishman that circumnavigated the globe. Through his skill and perseverance, a stream of water was brought to Plymouth from the sources of the river Meavy, in Dartmoor, by a winding channel nearly 24 miles in length. This noble undertaking was entirely executed at his own cost, and, the channel has ever since been vested with. the Corporation, and still supplies the town water-works. The Corporation claims to be by prescription, and has charters from eleven monarchs, beginning with Henry VI. and ending with William III. The borough sent two members to parliament in the 26th and 33rd of Edwd. I; in the 4th and 7th of Edward II., and the 4th of Edward III.; and it has regularly returned two members since the 20th of Hy. VI. A market is said to have been established here as early as 1253. In the reign of Edward, the port had 325 vessels. In 1512, an act of Parliament was passed for fortifying Plymouth and other seaports in the west; and in 1520, Bishop Lacey granted an indulgence to all such persons as should contribute to the fortifications at Plymouth. Leland, who visited it in the time of Henry VIII, says, "the mouth of the gulph, where the shippes of Plymouth lyith, is waullid on eche side, and chained over in tyme of necessitie; on the south-west side of the mouth in a block-house, and on a rocky hill hard by it is a strong castle quadrate, having on each corner a great round tower. It seemeth to be no very old peace of worke." The little island of St. Nicholas, or Drake's Island, was afterwards strongly fortified, and batteries and block-houses were erected on all sides of the town. On the 20th of July, 1588, part of the English fleet, consisting of 120 sail, under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Fras. Drake, lay at anchor in Plymouth Sound, when the Spanish Armada sailed up the channel, and some of its ships looked into the Sound, where the Spanish Admiral is said to have fixed upon Mount Edgcumbe as his future residence; but not liking the company he saw, his fleet passed out to sea, followed by the English, who overtook the enemy on the following day, kept up a running fight till the 24th, and being joined by another squadron off the Isle of Wight, drove the fight to a more general engagement, and continued it at intervals till the 28th, when they assailed the Armada with fire ships, and in two days saw "the invincible" sea force totally destroyed or dispersed. To this victorious fleet, Plymouth contributed seven ships and one fly-boat, a quota greater than that supplied by any other port except London. In 1595, twenty two chests of the Pope's bulls and indulgences, which had been taken from a discomfited party of Spanish invaders in Cornwall, were publicly burnt in Plymouth market place. In 1596, Plymouth Sound was the grand rendezvous of the fleet for the expedition against Cadiz. In 1625, Charles I., with his whole court, a fleet of 120 ships and 6000 troops, remained ten days at Plymouth, and was sumptuously entertained by the Corporation. In the following year, the plague carried off nearly 2000 of the inhabitants.
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CIVIL WAR

During the CIVIL WAR of the 17th century, Plymouth was in the hands of the Parliament, who retained it even at the time when most of the important places in the west were in the possession of the royalists. Soon after the commencement of the war, the Earl of Ruthen was appointed governor of the town, and Sir Alex. Carew had the command of the fort and island of St. Nicholas. Various attempts were made by the royalists to gain possession of this important post. Sir Ralph Hopton appeared before it in December, 1642, but was driven from his quarters by the Earl of Stamford. It having been discovered in the September following, that Sir Alex. Carew was on the point of betraying his trust, he was sent prisoner to London, and suffered death on Tower hill. In the early part of September, 1643, Colonel Digby was sent with a considerable force of horse and foot to blockade Plymouth, and took up his quarters at Plymstock. The blockading army had batteries at Oreston and Mount Batten, and a guard at Hoo. Early in October they planned an attack on Mount Stamford, a fort so called from the parliamentary general, the Earl of Stamford. Their guard at Hoo was defeated with much loss on the 8th, about which time Prince Maurice, having captured Dartmouth, advanced with his whole army to besiege Plymouth. The Prince's head-quarters were at Widey House, and his army was stationed at Plympton, Plymstock, Cawsand, Egg-Buckland, Tamerton, &c. On the 5th of November, Mount Stamford was taken by the besiegers, and the fort at Lipson, attempted. At this critical period, Col. Wardlaw, the governor, required all the inhabitants to take a vow and protestation to defend the towns of Plymouth and Stonehouse, and the fort and island of St. Nicholas, to the uttermost. On the 3rd of December, the royalists took a fort at Lory Point, but were soon repulsed by the garrison, who retook the fort. On the 18th of the same month, an attempt was made to storm the town, but the besiegers were repulsed with much loss, and the siege was raised on the 25th. Among the Devonshire officers engaged in this long siege, were the Earl of Marlborough, Sir Thos. Hele, Sir Edmund Fortescue, and Sir P. Courtenay. In April, 1644, Sir Richard Grenville advanced with his forces towards Plymouth, but Col. Martin, then governor of the town, marched out with the greater part of the garrison and defeated him at St. Budeaux, and took two companies prisoners. About three days after, Sir Richard advanced again, but with no better success; and he was again repulsed before Plymouth in July, when Col. Kerr was made governor. About this time, Prince Maurice again attempted the capture of Plymouth, but not succeeding, he left Sir Richard Grenville to blockade the town. The Earl of Essex and his army approached Plymouth about the end of the month, and Sir Richard hastily abandoned the blockade. After the surrender of Essex's army in Cornwall, the King came before Plymouth on the 9th of September, 1644, attended by Prince Maurice. On the 11th, Lord Roberts, the governor, was summoned to surrender the town; but on his refusal, it was determined, at a council of war, not to undertake an assault or close siege; and the blockade was again entrusted to Sir Richd. Grenville. The King lodged at Widey House, but left, with the greater part of his army, on the 14th. In January, 1645, Sir Richard Grenville, having a force of 6000 men, assaulted the town, and gained possession of the four great out-works, but was soon afterwards repulsed, with great loss. Mount Stamford was retaken by the garrison on the 18th of February, and Grenville was again defeated on the 24th. In June, the command of the blockade was entrusted to Sir John Berkeley, and in September to General Digby. Colonel Weldon was made governor of Plymouth in October; but on the 10th of January, 1646, the blockade of Plymouth was finally abandoned. (See pages 31 and 56.) In 1654, a special order was directed from Oliver Cromwell, then Protector, directing that in future all persons who wished to be married must be united at the Guildhall, by the Mayor and Justices for the time being. This occasioned a considerable ferment among all ranks, and a sort of remonstrance; but the order was made peremptory, on the ground that marriage was a civil contract. At this time the borough paid its two representatives for their services in Parliament. In 1670, Charles II. visited Plymouth, and was presented by the Corporation with a purse of 150 broad pieces. In 1683, the borough charter was surrendered to the King, on the requisition of Judge Jefferies, and a new one was granted, at the expense of £417. 19s. which vested the power in ten aldermen and twelve assistants only. This continued in force till 1697, when the old charter was restored.

When the combined fleet was in the Channel, in 1779, and the prison-ships were crowded with French and Spanish captives, great apprehensions were entertained for the safety of the place, but a corps of volunteers was raised by Wm. Bastard, Esq., and under their escort the prisoners were marched to Exeter. During the alarms of invasion from France, in 1798, 1803, and 1805, great exertions were made for the defence of Plymouth town and dock, but they were not attempted by the enemy. The town, in connexion with its dock-yard, arsenal, and harbours, was the scene of much bustle throughout the last war with France, and rose so rapidly in importance, that its suburb of Stonehouse became doubled in population, and its western suburb of Devonport, then called Plymouth-Dock, increased from almost nothing to the bulk of a rival town. Though it might have been expected to suffer reaction, and fall into languor and decline after the return of peace, it has, on the contrary, continued to prosper, and has undergone striking improvements, not only in its architecture and the appearance of domestic comfort, but in the number and character of its literary and charitable institutions. Plymouth is supposed to have had about 10,000 inhabitants in the reign of Edward III., for we find that in 1773, (soon after a great pestilence,) it contained 4837 persons of 14 years of age or upwards, then rated to the poll tax, from which only clergymen and mendicants were exempt. As a sea-port, it has from an early period been one of the principal rendezvous of the British navy. From this port, Edward the Black Prince, after having been detained forty days in Sutton Pool by contrary winds, sailed in 1355, on his successful expedition to France, which was crowned with the glorious victory of Poictiers; and here he landed on the first of May, 1357, with the French King, and his son, the Dauphin, as prisoners in his train. In 1470, the Earl of Warwick, with the Duke of Clarence, and the Earls of Pembroke and Oxford, landed here to excite the revolt which caused the temporary restoration of Henry VI. In 1346, this port furnished 25 ships and 603 mariners for the blockade of Calais. The ill-fated Catherine of Arragon landed here in 1501; and from this port were fitted out the vessels of the Earl of Cumberland, Drake, Gilbert, Carlisle, Grenville, Cavendish, Cook, and Wallis, when they set sail on their respective voyages of discovery. The celebrated Sir Martin Frobisher, not only sailed from this port, but is said to have died here in 1594. The much injured Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have been arrested on his landing here, previous to the enforcing of the fatal but suspended sentence in 1618. (See p. 221.) In 1633, there was so great a flood here that boats floated into the streets. During the high tide in 1714, property to the amount of £3000 was destroyed in the town, and casks and boats floated about the streets. The old barbican was washed down in 1762. The Princess Amelia was at Plymouth and Mount Edgcumbe in 1766, and in that year the streets began to be paved and lighted. The Duke of Cumberland was here in 1769, the Duke of Gloucester in 1782, and George III. and Queen Charlotte in 1789. Their Majesties were sumptuously entertained at Saltram House, and during their stay there was a naval review and a grand sham fight, in which the fleet formed into two separate lines of battle, one being considered French and the other English. In 1790, two men were gibbeted for murder, near Stoke church. In 1796, the Dutton East Indiaman was wrecked near the Citadel. In 1791 and 1799, the two piers which form the entrance to Sutton Pool were erected. The magnificent Hotel and Theatre were built by the Corporation in 1811, and the colossal Breakwater was commenced in the following year. On the 5th of July, 1815, the Bellerophon dropped anchor in Plymouth Sound, having on board the fallen Emperor Napolean, who for 20 years had filled the world with his fame, and had pulled down kings and set up princes at his pleasure. He remained here eight days, and thousands of visitors came from all parts, and went off in boats and other vessels to behold the man who had so long been the dread of nations, but was now a fallen enemy, who had surrendered himself to the protection of Great Britain. The curiosity of the crowds which were daily drawn round the Bellerophon was frequently gratified by his condescension in placing himself in the gangways, conspicuous to every beholder, and returning the respect paid him by the shouts of the multitude, by bowing to all around. After waiting the decision of a cabinet council as to his future destiny, which terminated in the island of St. Helena, he was transferred from the Bellerophon to the Northumberland, which ship and her consorts immediately proceeded on their long voyage, and arrived at the island after a tedious passage of ten weeks. The long war, which had cost England so much money and blood, was now terminated; the extensive Prison of War, (see page 39,) which had been built in Dartmoor Forest, for the relief of the crowded prison ships of Plymouth, gave up its thousands of captives; and the whole world hailed with delight the return of peace. The Grand Duke Michael of Russia visited Plymouth in 1817, and in the same year an act was obtained for settling disputes between the Corporation and the Board of Ordnance. George IV. was proclaimed here in 1819, in the midst of great rejoicings, and a dinner was given to the poor, but there were greater rejoicings, and the poor were much more liberally entertained at his coronation, in the following year, when upwards of 5000 dined in the market-place. The prosperity of the town suffered a severe check during the great panic of 1824, when the Plymouth Bank failed, like many others in the kingdom. During the year there was an extremely high tide; household furniture floated about some of the streets, and many boats were destroyed. Races were established on Chelson Meadow, in 1826. Plymouth has received and entertained many royal visitors, and was honoured with the presence of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1843. It has, at various periods, suffered severely from plagues and other maladies, as it did in 1832 and 1849 from cholera. This awful scourge swept off 779 of its inhabitants, from June to September, in 1832; and 819 from the 4th July to the 8th of November, in 1849; and the total number of cases in the former year was 1894, and in the latter 3360. The total number of deaths from cholera in the towns, from July 4th to October 2nd, 1849, was 717 in Plymouth, 717 in Devonport, and 155 in Stonehouse, - making a total of 1589 during the three mouths. In the week ending August 16, there were 140 deaths in Devonport alone, and in the following week 112, besides 74 in Plymouth, and 17 in Stonehouse. Some parts of the three towns are very badly drained, but various sanatory improvements have been proposed, and some of them are now being carried out. At present, the drainage of Plymouth empties itself into Sutton Harbour and Millbay, through outlets which are above low water mark, but it has been proposed to collect the drainage into a large culvert, to be carried out into the deep water of the Sound. As noticed at page 59, the South Devon Railway was opened to Laira, on May 5th, 1848; and to Plymouth on April 2nd, 1849; when the Mayor invited the Chairman and Directors to a dejeuner a la fourchette, at the Royal Hotel, and the arrival of the first train was witnessed by thousands of spectators.

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FORTIFICATIONS, HARBOURS, and NAVAL and MILITARY ESTABLISHMENTS

The following general survey of the FORTIFICATIONS, HARBOURS, and NAVAL and MILITARY ESTABLISHMENTS of Plymouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport, will be followed by a separate description of each town and its public institutions, charities, &c.

The CITADEL

The CITADEL at Plymouth is a large fortification on the south side of the town, occupying that bold headland which extends from the western side of Sutton Pool into the Sound, at the confluence of the Catwater. It was erected on the site of an old fort, by order of Charles II., who inspected it personally in the year 1670. It is built chiefly of limestone and granite, and consists of three regular and two irregular bastions; and the curtains of the former are strengthened by ravelins and hornworks. The east, west, and north sides are circumscribed by a deep ditch, counterscarp, and covered way, pallisadoed; and the south side is defended by a lower fort, constructed upon the rocks on the shore, and chiefly intended to defend the Sound. Cannon are mounted both on this fort and on the upper parapets, where there are embrasures for 120 pieces. Two gateways with drawbridges form the entrance from the town; and the second gateway, which opens immediately into the Citadel, displays a sculpture of the royal arms, and other devices. In the centre of the spacious esplanade, where the troops are exercised, (and round which stand the officers houses, chapel, armory, and barrack,) is a bronze colossal statue of George II., in the costume of a Roman warrior, wreathed with laurel. From the ramparts, which are nearly three quarters of a mile in circuit, the views are extensive and beautiful.
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The HOE

The HOE is a commanding eminence, bounded on the east by the Citadel, on the south by the Sound, and on the west by Millbay. It is justly styled "the lungs of Plymouth," for here the inhabitants of all grades resort for air and exercise. Great improvements have been made of late years by the formation of carriage drives and public walks, with seats at intervals. The facilities of access from the town to this extensive and delightful promenade have recently been increased by several new avenues. The soldiers stationed in the Citadel frequently exercise on the Hoe; and occasionally may be witnessed a sham fight. The band often enlivens the promenade; and in the central part is an interesting Camera Obscura, and an obelisk which serves as a mark for vessels entering the harbour. The views from this elevated promenade are extensive; embracing seaward, the Sound, Drake's Island, the Breakwater, the Mew Stone, and in clear weather, Eddystone Lighthouse, fourteen miles distant in the English Channel. On the right, the Cornish coast is seen from Penlee Point to the shores of Cawsand, - and from thence over the nearer and well defined groves and lawns of Mount Edgecumbe; and still more westerly, the town of Devonport, with its column and steeples, and the elevated suburbs of Stoke. On the left is seen the line of the coast from Staddon Point to Mount Batten, guarding the entrance to Catwater; and thence, looking inland over the town, may be seen the extensive woods of Saltram, and the more distant hills of Dartmoor. There is a landing place under the Hoe, whence a boat can be procured for a trip to Drake's Island and the Breakwater.
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ST. NICHOLAS' or DRAKE'S ISLAND

ST. NICHOLAS' or DRAKE'S ISLAND, is near the middle of Plymouth Sound, and comprises only about three acres, strongly fortified, and connected with the south western shore by a range of rocks, which is uncovered at low water, and is commonly called the Bridge of Rocks. Even at high water no vessels can pass these rocks, except those of very small burthen. This small island is surrounded with rocks, and has always been the chief defence of the port. It was strongly garrisoned by the Parliamentarians during the civil wars of the 17th century, but was once or twice on the eve of being treacherously surrendered to the Royalists, as already noticed. The garrison is generally formed by a detachment of troops from the Citadel. The landing place is on the north side, where the rock is ascended by a flight of steps through a vaulted passage. A large portion of the area of the island is occupied by the fortifications, and barracks for about 140 soldiers and 40 gunners. The fortifications have been greatly augmented during the last two centuries, and the principal battery was completed in 1846, and mounts 19 pieces of cannon, ranging from 32 to 68 pounders. In addition to its defences, the fort contains furnaces for beating balls red hot. Some authors consider this island as the site of the Tamarweorth, of the Saxons, so called from its being "the river island of the Tamar," which here mingles its waters in the Sound, after passing the noble harbour of Hamoaze. Westcote says, the island of St. Nicholas was a place of refuge to divers gentlemen in the insurrection of 1549, (see page 56,) when the insurgents plundered and set fire to Plymouth. Before the erection of its fortifications, it had an ancient chapel, which Camden calls St. Michael's. In 1548, the mayor of Plymouth received orders from the Privy Council to convert this chapel into a bulwark.

On the highest point of the promontory on the south side of the entrance to Catwater, opposite the Citadel, stands MOUNT BATTEN, an ancient circular fort, having no entrance but at a considerable height from the ground, to which access is afforded by a ladder. The interior is arched in the form of a dome, with solid and durable masonry. During the war between Charles I. and the Parliament, it was the scene of repeated skirmishes and much bloodshed. In addition to the new fortifications lately completed at Bovisand, Picklecombe Point, and Drake's Island, a large fort called the Prince of Wales' Redoubt, was erected in 1849, on the headland called Western King, near the Victualling Yard. These render the defence of the Sound complete.

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The BREAKWATER

The BREAKWATER is a stupendous national work, about two miles south of the Citadel, extending about a mile in length across the Central part of the Sound, between Cawsand and Bovisand Bays. The broad and often turbulent waters of the Sound are here about three miles broad, and open into the English Channel about two miles further to the south. From the frequent occurrence of storms from the south-west, which endangered vessels at anchor, it was deemed an object of great importance to make the Sound a safe roadstead; consequently, in 1811, Government determined on the adoption of a plan submitted to them by Messrs. Rennie and Whidbey, of forming this gigantic Breakwater. For its construction they purchased, for £10,000, a mass of limestone rock at Oreston, covering 25 acres. The first stone (a vast block,) was deposited Aug. 12th, 1812; and in the following March, the Breakwater had so far advanced, that parts of its irregular surface were seen above low water. In June, 1847, no less than 3,620,440 tons of limestone had been used in this great work, though 70 yards of the eastern arm, requiring 50,000 tons more, were then unfinished. In addition to this enormous bulk, 2,512,696 cubic feet of granite and other stone were used in the paving and facings. The total cost of the Breakwater was about £1,500,000. The centre part is a straight line, extending one thousand yards, and at each end is an arm or kant, 350 yards long, projecting towards the shore at an angle of 120 degrees; but the low water line extends 70 yards further. The top is 45 feet broad, and is at the ends two feet, and in the centre three feet above the high water of spring tides. Above 500 yards of the centre rests upon shovel rocks and shoals, and the rest stretches out into deeper water, leaving a passage for vessels 1600 yards wide on the west, and another 1000 yards wide on the east. The whole work has a vertical height of from 56 to 80 feet, from the base to the top. In addition to the outer slope is an extensive berne, or foreshore, 30 feet wide at the extremity of the east wing, 50 feet wide in the centre, and 70 feet wide at the extremity of the west wing. This foreshore rises from the base of the slope to about five feet above the low water line; and serves to break the force of the waves before they strike the main body of the work, and to prevent their recoil from undermining the slopes of the base, and making a consequent breach in the general structure. The western end of the Breakwater is strengthened by facings of masonry, and finished off in a circular form, to serve as the foundation of a Light House, which was completed in 1843, and rises 68 feet above the platform. It is crowned by a lantern eight feet high, supported by gun metal pilasters, and provided with four refractors, and five tiers containing 118 mirrors. The light can be seen at the distance of eight miles, except in foggy weather, when a bell is struck a certain number of times every minute, by clock machinery. A floating light had been stationed near the same spot since 1813, but was often sent adrift from its moorings. In January, 1817, and November, 1824, the Breakwater (then unfinished,) was much injured by violent storms; particularly in the latter year, when a most tremendous hurricane, acting on an unusually high tide, made vast breaches through this barrier; yet even that tempest demonstrated its great utility, for had not the Breakwater existed, it was supposed that all the ships in the Catwater would have been wrecked, and many of the buildings near the shore swept into the ocean. That it has answered the expectations of its warmest advocates, is evinced by the security it has afforded to ships at anchor, above 200 sail of vessels having taken refuge within it at one time. On the shore of Bovisand, east of the Breakwater, is a large reservoir of water, for supplying vessels free of charge, which is done by means of iron pipes, at the landing place.
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EDDYSTONE LIGHT HOUSE

EDDYSTONE LIGHT HOUSE is under the control of the Customs' establishment at Plymouth, though distant 14 miles in the Channel, opposite the Sound. This celebrated structure stands upon one of a large cluster of rocks, stretching north and south to the length of about 100 fathoms. The particular form and position of these rocks tend greatly to augment the force of the sea; and previous to the erection of the lighthouse, many fatal accidents happened upon them. Though most important to the port of Plymouth, this lighthouse is highly beneficial to all vessels traversing the English Channel. In 1696, the first attempt to erect a lighthouse on the principal rock, was accomplished by Mr. Henry Winstanley, of Essex. who completed it in three years; but this bold and unfortunate mechanic, perished amidst the ruins of his edifice, in the tremendous storm of November, 1703. Three years after, Mr. Rudyerd, of London, began to erect another lighthouse on the same spot, of stone and timber, and completed it in 1709. This structure, after braving the storms of the ocean for 46 years, was destroyed by fire in 1755. The present lighthouse was erected by that celebrated architect the late Mr. Smeaton, and exhibits a striking triumph of art and ingenuity. It was commenced in 1757, and finished in 1759. With the exception of the lantern, which is of cast iron and copper, the building is entirely of stone, the outside being of granite, and the floors vaulted. It is a circular building, and the diameter of the base is 26 feet, and that of the top 15 feet. The stone work rises 70 feet to the octagonal lantern, which rises 24 feet higher. The stones average a ton weight each, and those on the same level are dove-tailed together, and the successive courses are attached to each other, by means of square blocks of marble, which project one-half of their solidity into the course below, and the other half into the course above. By this means, so firm a bond is maintained, both horizontally and vertically, that the building may be regarded as one entire and perfect substance. Three men are now stationed here, and they are provided with food and other necessaries by a boat appointed for that purpose; but they are always stocked with salt provisions, to guard against the possibility of want, as in winter it sometimes happens that the boats cannot approach for many weeks together.
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CATWATER HARBOUR

CATWATER HARBOUR, on the south-east side of Plymouth, is the grand outlet, through which the river Plym falls into the Sound, between the Citadel and Mount Batten. It is capable of receiving a thousand sail of merchant ships, but though protected by high hills, ships have sometimes been wrecked in it, as was the case in the tremendous gales of 1824 and 1828, when 20 vessels were stranded on its rocky shores in the former, and 15 in the latter year. Above Catwater, the estuary of the Plym, assumes a lake-like expanse, called the Laira or Lary, and skirted by the groves of Saltram, - the splendid seat of the Earl of Morley, (see p. 555,) whose predecessor erected at his own expense, the Laira Bridge, an elegant structure, consisting of five elliptical arches of cast iron, springing from abutments and piers of stone. The first stone was laid in 1824, and the bridge was finished in 1827. The centre arch is 100 feet span, and rises 14½ feet above high water mark; and the other arches are two of them 95 and two 81 feet each in span. The roadway is 24 feet wide within the railings, and 500 feet in length.
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SUTTON POOL HARBOUR

SUTTON POOL HARBOUR is in the south-eastern part of Plymouth, and is nearly surrounded by the town. The entrance from Catwater in about 90 feet in width, between two large Piers, (called the Barbican,) that were erected by means of parliamentary grants, in 1791 and 1799. This spacious harbour belongs to the Duchy of Cornwall, but is held on lease by the Sutton Harbour Improvement Company, who, during the last four years, have expended large sums in cleansing and deepening it, and in erecting sea-walls, quays, &c. When the contemplated improvements are finished, it will be one of the finest tidal harbours in the kingdom. The railway from Dartmoor granite works terminates at its south-eastern angle, and it is intended to have a communication with the South Devon Railway. New quays, wharfs, cranes, railway slips, storehouses, &c., have been erected by the spirited Company; and a large dredging machine is employed in excavating the muddy bottom, formerly left bare at low water. On the West Barbican pier-head is a fixed light, 29 feet above high water mark.
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MILL BAY

MILL BAY is larger than Sutton Pool, extending about 500 yards inwards from the Pier, between Plymouth and Stonehouse, and being about the same breadth in its widest parts. Mill Bay Pier extends about 500 feet across the eastern side of the Bay, from the vicinity of the extensive limestone and marble quarries on the West Hoe, belonging to Thos. Gill, Esq., who, in 1840, obtained an act of parliament for the erection of the Pier, which he completed at the cost of above £27,000. Vessels of 3000 tons burthen may lie safely close to this fine Pier, in the inner harbour, at low water. The Great Western Dock Company have lately purchased this pier and the Harbour, and are now constructing at the head of the Bay the GREAT WESTERN DOCK, which will have a sufficient depth of water, and gates wide enough, for the reception of large steam and sailing vessels. The largest of these docks is now in rapid progress. and will occupy eleven acres, and be 22 feet deep, with a lock entrance for vessels of about 1000 tons, and a gate wide enough for the admission of the largest ships. These extensive docks will be finished in about two years; and along their quays and wharfs will be railways communicating with the adjacent station of the South Devon Railway. Between the docks and the pier there will still be spacious outer harbour, capable of containing a great number of vessels of all classes. It is anticipated that, after the docks are finished, and the other improvements completed, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Packets will start hence, instead of from Southampton ; and no doubt merchants trading to India, will avail themselves of the great facilities afforded by the docks and railway, and make this the point of debarkation and embarkation, especially for mail bags and passengers; - as much time would be thus saved, and the dangers of the Channel, in a passage sometimes of a week's duration, avoided. On the West Hoe, near Mill Bay Pier, are about to be built a range of large and handsome houses, which will have tasteful grounds, commanding delightful views over the Sound and the adjacent harbours, Mount Edgcumbe, &c. Mill Bay is guarded by several forts and batteries; and on the eastern side of it is the Government Prison, which was rebuilt about 25 years ago, on the site of the old Prison of War, but is now used chiefly as a depot for military stores, and has a spacious yard and barracks attached.
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HAMOAZE

HAMOAZE, the great western harbour of the three towns, is completely land-locked, and extends northward from Mount Edgcumbe to Saltash, a distance of four miles. It is in some places about a mile broad, and has a number of pools and creeks for the reception of shipping, such as Stonehouse Pool, Barnpool, Millbrook Lake, Keyham Lake, &c. Stonehouse Pool branches out of it, between Stonehouse and Devonport, and the tides run up it from the pier called the Admiral's Hard, through Stonehouse Lake and Mill Pool, a distance of 1½ mile. Hamoaze is the estuary of the river Tamar, and falls into the Sound below Devonport. Here are the public establishments and station for the Royal Navy; and a great number of ships of war, of all classes, may at all times be seen lying in ordinary, secured by immense chains, and covered with wooden roofs to protect them from the weather. These floating bulwarks, being stripped of their rigging, and having nothing standing but their lower masts, have a singular, though magnificent, appearance. The depth of this extensive estuary, where a great part of the British navy lies moored in "stern repose," is above 18 fathoms at high water, and 15 at low water. In this harbour, upwards of one hundred sail of the line, besides frigates and small vessels, may safely ride at anchor in severe gales.
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DEVONPORT DOCKYARD

DEVONPORT DOCKYARD, one of the largest naval establishments in the kingdom, presents to the broad harbour of Hamoaze, a semicircular wharf wall more than 1160 yards in length. This Dock Yard, now one of the finest in Europe, is believed to have been commenced soon after the glorious Revolution of 1688, under the auspices of William III. The town of Devonport, to which the Dock Yard gave rise, was called Plymouth Dock till 1824, as afterwards noticed; and in official documents the arsenal retained the name of "Plymouth Yard" till the visit of her Majesty and Prince Albert, in September, 1843, when the Queen commanded that in future it should be styled in all documents Devonport Dock Yard. It was commenced on a comparatively small scale, and for a long period the officers and artizans resided at Plymouth, there being then no houses at Devonport. In 1728, government obtained from Sir Wm. Morice, a long lease of 40A. of land, which was then occupied by the Dock Yard, and had been previously rented from year to year. The extent of the arsenal was then 54 acres, and the spot on which the great fire occurred in 1840, appears to have been the original site. William III. constructed the basin and two of the naval docks, and two others were made in 1768. Since then many extensions and improvements have taken place, and this extensive Dock Yard now comprises 70 ½ acres, and gives employment to from 1400 to 1600 men, as shipwrights, caulkers, joiners, smiths, sawyers, rope-makers, painters, riggers, sail-makers, labourers, &c., besides a large number of apprentices. In time of war, its establishment would be augmented to about 4000. Its peace establishment has recently been reduced, to satisfy the loud cry which has lately been raised for the reduction of taxes and national expenditure; and several new regulations have been established by the Admiralty for increasing the efficiency of this and other naval yards, at a less cost than formerly. The Dock Yard is separated from the town of Devonport by Dockwall street, and they are encompassed on the land sides by a strongly fortified wall 12 feet high. Government own a large space of land on both sides of this long line of fortifications. On entering the Dock Yard from the gates at the end of Fore street, we are struck by the absence of all appearance of labour; but glancing the eye in the vista are perceived long ranges of buildings uniting strength with neatness. Passing hence in a gradual descent to the water's edge, we soon immerge into the bustle of several hundred mechanics. On the right of the entrance is the residence of the director of police; and the next object is the spacious and handsome Chapel, which was built in 1816-'17, on the site of the old one, which was erected in 1700. The interior is handsomely fitted up and has a good organ; and in the tower are six musical bells. The Rev. John Briggs is the chaplain, and has a yearly salary of £400. Near the chapel are two reservoirs, from which the establishment is supplied with pure water. Passing from the guard house and pay office, down a fine avenue, we arrive at the residences of the principal officers, in the centre of which is the mansion of the Admiral Superintendent, approached by two flights of steps. We next arrive at the edge of a terrace or shelf, from whence flights of steps descend into the busy area below. Here almost the whole of the arsenal, before unseen, bursts into view. The noble ships in progress of building, and under repair, - the magnificent storehouses and workshops, - the gigantic sheds protecting the docks; and the neatness and order everywhere apparent, excite the admiration of the stranger. From this point some conception of the vastness of the establishment may be formed. In the engine house and saw-mills it is curious to observe the power of steam, applied at the same moment to the most trifling as well as the most important operations. At one spot, we see it directed to the cutting of wedges; at others cutting screws, drilling, planing, punching, turning grind-stones, and pumping the water out of the superb dock with inexpressible ease. A large fan is driven by it, and air drains, made under the floor of the smithery, convey the blasts to the fires, and thereby supersede the bellows. A shaft is carried underground to the saw mills, where immense blocks of wood are changed into delicate planks; and under the steps is a curious machine, called "Jim Crow," for making halyards for vessels of war. In one of the smitheries is one of Nasmith's patent steam tilt hammers, the power of which can easily be increased or diminished to the largest or smallest requirements. The portion of the yard, occupied by locksmiths, carvers, plumbers, masons, &c., is near this smithery. Proceeding to the north jetty, we view the noble Hamoaze, with its bosom dotted with men of war of various ratings, and in different states of equipment. The new north dock next claims attention. It is sufficiently capacious for building or repairing the largest man of war, and was first opened in 1789. The next are the union, double, and south or basin docks. This spot is memorable as the scene of the great fire, on September 27th, 1840, when upwards of £80,000 worth of public property was destroyed. On the left are two ranges of buildings, containing the joiners' and carpenters' shops, &c., surmounted by a conspicuous clock, with four dials. We next approach a massive storehouse, which, together with the sail-loft, forms a square of nearly 400 feet, and is built entirely of stone and iron. Near this is the large new basin, which has been lately finished and affords space to float ten first rate men of war, exclusive of its two graving docks. On the anchor wharf are anchors of all sizes, some weighing 96 cwt. Adjoining the jetty is a graving slip, and near it is a weigh bridge for weighing heavy articles. A swivel bridge crosses the canal, which runs into the heart of the yard, and is called the "Camber;" and near it is another smithery, where the largest anchors are made, one of which occupies 36 men ten days. Just beyond are three slips, in which the largest men of war are built. The slips for building frigates and smaller craft are at a short distance. The boat and mast ponds and houses are extensive, and near them are the two large rope houses, each 1200 feet long, and built entirely of stone and iron. Cables, 25 inches in circumference, and cordage for the navy are manufactured here. There is a pleasant little rocky eminence near the mast house, called the King's hill, or Bunker's hill. George III., on his visit to this yard, having been so pleased with the charming prospect seen from this rock, expressed a wish that it might be excepted from the general excavation to which the surrounding site was subjected. The sides of this rock are thickly covered with ivy and evergreens, and its summit is crowned by a beautiful temple, erected in 1822, in memory of the visit of George III. The docks, slips, canals, basins, &c., are mostly hewn out of the slate rock, and lined with Portland stone. The extent of the excavations and masonry may be judged of by the following dimensions of the "New North Dock," excavated from the solid rock, - length, 254 feet 2 inches, - extreme breadth, 97 feet - depth, 27 feet 8 inches. The great diversity of employments, ingenuity, and manual activity, exhibited in the various departments of this Dock Yard, presents a very interesting spectacle, and perhaps no sight is better calculated to enable a comprehensive mind to form a proper estimate of the powers of continued labour than the gradual growth of a few rude pieces of timber into the majestic structure that encounters the wind and waves, and forms the most complete security against invasion that Great Britain can possess.
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The GUN WHARF

The GUN WHARF is situated north of the Dock Yard, and occupies nearly five acres, fronting Homoaze harbour, and enclosed by a high wall. It was planned about a century ago. After passing from the entrance through a fine avenue of trees, the houses, "c., of the officers are seen on the left. At the foot of a flight of steps are the armory and storehouses. In the former immense piles of muskets, pistols, cutlasses, &c., are deposited in Chests; and others are arranged about the walls in the forms of stars, circles, fans, and crescents. Near the storehouses are buildings appropriated as depositories for gun-carriages, and implements of the field. On the wharfs and around, are a great number of cannon, of different caliber, which belong to the vessels of war moored in the harbour, and also numerous piles of shot, of every size. At Morice Town, north of Gun Wharf, is the new GOVERNMENT STEAM YARD, skirted on the west by Hamoaze harbour, and on the north by Keyham Lake, and occupying about 70 acres. It has two extensive basins, entered from the estuary by locks of such magnitude that the largest ships may enter three hours before high water. The south lock is so constructed as to be converted into a dry dock, when a line of battle ship is brought in to have her bottom examined or cleansed. From the eastern side of the south basin three large dry docks are projected, of such dimensions as to be capable of accommodating the largest steamers afloat. The north is the fitting basin, and east of it are ranged the storehouses, factories, foundries, smitheries, &c. This yard has been some years in progress, and is not yet completed. It will cost about £2,000,000, and there have been employed in its formation upwards of 1200 men, 100 horses, and 70 boats. South of it is Moon's Cove and Ship Canal, and between the latter and Gun Wharf, is New Passage, where the STEAM FLOATING BRIDGE, a ponderous vessel, conveys passengers, carriages, &c., to and from Torpoint, every half hour. The stage coaches are taken across the broad estuary, without even unhorsing, or the coachmen and guards alighting.
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GOVERNMENT HOUSE

Devonport is the seat of the military and naval government of the port, the former being removed here from the Citadel at Plymouth in 1725. The GOVERNMENT HOUSE, comprising the private residence and military offices of the Lieutenant Governor of the garrison; and the ADMIRAL'S HOUSE, the residence for the Port Admiral, and offices belonging to his department; are pleasantly situated on the south-east side of the town, upon the fine, open, and spacious parade called MOUNT WISE, overlooking the harbour of Hamoaze. Here are held the military parades and inspections; and on rejoicing days the whole disposable force of the three towns is reviewed, and the parade becomes a scene of great gaiety. At the east end stands, mounted, a brass cannon of immense size, taken from the Turks, in the Dardanelles. From the ramparts and the several batteries, (mounted with heavy artillery,) delightful views are seen; and on the summit of the hill, is the Semaphore, or Telegraph Station, where signals are made with the admiral of all ships that are passing up and down the channel within sight of the coast. The BARRACKS on the east side of Devonport, but within the lines, form four large squares, called George, Cumberland, Ligonier and Frederick Squares, and have room for 2000 soldiers. The Laboratory at Mount Wise is now used as barracks.
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The ROYAL WILLIAM VICTUALLING YARD

The ROYAL WILLIAM VICTUALLING YARD occupies the north side of that large headland at Stonehouse, which projects into the Sound and the spacious harbour of Hamoaze. This magnificent national establishment was commenced in 1826, and completed in 1835, from the designs of Sir John Rennie, at the cost of £1,500,000. The entire premises occupy about l3 acres of land, of which nearly half was recovered from the' sea; the material for that purpose being obtained from the excavations made in levelling and preparing the remainder of the site. The entrance gateway is in the Graeco-Roman style, and wholly of finely wrought granite. The front exhibits a grand central arch and two side entrances; and on the former is placed a statue of William IV., of Portland stone, 13 ½ feet in height. It is a most exquisite piece of sculpture, and a good likeness. The ox's heads and anchors over the side entrances, were carved by a rustic sculptor. The general facing of the extensive buildings is of wrought limestone; but the plinths, dressings, cornices, &c., in the principal fronts, are of granite. The doors and window frames are of cast iron, as are the internal columns of all the warehouses, and the girders, lintels, &c. of the Cooperage. The Long Store, Melville Store, and the Cooperage are roofed with iron, copper, and slate. On the right of the entrance is a fine range of buildings, 250 feet by 200, wherein the bread for the navy is prepared by means of a steam engine, of 40 horse power, and 25 pairs of mill-stones, capable of grinding 1000 bushels of corn in the short space of ten hours. The flour is passed from the mill to the story below, where it is kneaded, and the dough cut into biscuits, by curiously contrived machinery. In one part of the buildings appropriated for the preparation of butchers' meat, is the slaughter house, where 70 or 80 head of cattle can be despatched at once. The next buildings, on the left, are called the Melville Quadrangle, and are 240 feet square, with a lofty granite archway, surmounted by a clock. The interior contains spacious apartments for the various stores connected with victualling the navy. In front is a large basin, with an entrance for vessels from the harbour, and around it are spacious quays, built of granite. The next building is the Brewhouse, with a steam-engine of 40 horse power; but owing to the discontinuance of serving beer to the navy, it has remained useless. Beyond this is the extensive Cooperage, floored with four-inch York paving. At a short distance are the Clarence Stores, 340 feet long and 50 broad. In front of these stores is a noble wharf, extending 500 feet, and forming a delightful promenade on the margin of the broad waters of Hamoaze, near their confluence with the Sound. The officers' residences are to the right of the entrance. About 150 men are employed here, but in time of war the number would be greatly augmented. The DEVIL'S POINT is the high ground behind the Victualling Yard, where there is a Reservoir, holding 7000 tuns of water, and a Battery, from which the royal marine artillery practise the firing of heavy shot at a flag fixed on a buoy in the Sound. The ROYAL MARINE BARRACKS front Mill Bay and the Great Western Docks, and generally contain about 700 men, and an excellent band.
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The ROYAL NAVAL.HOSPITAL

The ROYAL NAVAL HOSPITAL is at Stonehouse, opposite Stonehouse Lake, and occupies about 24 acres, including a verdant lawn of 13 acres. It was opened in 1762 for the reception of sick and wounded seamen and marines, of whom it received no fewer than 48,452 from 1800 to 1814, a great portion of whom were returned to the service as effective men. The buildings range in the form of a square, and will accommodate 1200 patients. The government of the hospital is entrusted to a captain in the navy, and the same officer is superintendent of the Victualling Yard. Every attention is paid to the patients, and the establishment displays much regularity and cleanliness.
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The ROYAL MILITARY HOSPITAL

The ROYAL MILITARY HOSPITAL is on the opposite side of Stonehouse Lake, near Stoke Church, and was built in 1797. The south front is of grey marble, and has a very imposing appearance, being of considerable length, and having an arcade of 41 arches, forming a fine promenade for the sick. It will accommodate 500 patients, and has extensive grounds enclosed by a lofty wall. The BLOCKHOUSE, at Higher Stoke, is a square fortification, erected in the reign of George II., and intended as a redoubt for the defence of the town and harbour. The views from its ramparts are extensive and beautiful, embracing not only the three towns and their harbours, but a large portion of the adjacent country, in the picturesque vales of the rivers Tamar and St. Germans or Lynher.
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The PORT OF PLYMOUTH

The PORT OF PLYMOUTH extends to all the harbours, rivers, and creeks between Looe on the west, and the river Yealm on the east; but its Pilotage district extends eastward as far as Start Point, though no master of a vessel is compelled to take a pilot, except going into or coming out of the ports within a line drawn from Rame-Head to the Mewstone. During the late long protracted war, Plymouth was content with its resources as a great naval and military station, and paid but little attention to Trade and Commerce with the Colonies of foreign countries. Its merchants, at this period, were mostly agents for London, Liverpool, and Bristol houses, and purchased and transported under their directions the vast quantities of prize-goods brought here for sale. Those who withstood the shock caused by the change from warlike to peaceable occupations, gradually extended their connexions with foreign nations and our distant colonial possessions; and the shipping and commerce of the port have been rapidly increasing during the last 20 years. A considerable trade is now carried on with America, the Mediterranean, the West Indies, the Baltic, &c.; and here are now consuls or vice consuls for about 30 different nations. The port has also an extensive coasting trade with London, Bristol, Newport, Exeter, Newcastle, &c., and has a number of fine Steam Ships, which sail once or twice a week with goods and passengers to London, Southampton, Portsmouth, Guernsey, Jersey, Dublin, Cork, Torquay, &c. There is now no port in the English Channel, between London and Land's-End, where so great an amount of business is done as at Plymouth, and where so much shipping is employed. The number of vessels which entered the port with cargoes in 1848, was 4106, and their amount of tonnage 399,798. Of the vessels, 538 were from foreign parts, 175 from Ireland, and 3393 were coasters. The number which cleared out in the same year was 2343, including 105 to foreign parts, 328 in ballast, 236 to Ireland; 1585 coasting vessels, and 89 emigrant ships; the latter taking out 8505 passengers. Many vessels make several voyages in the year, and each voyage is counted as a separate vessel in the above statement. The number of vessels registered here in 1849 was 433, of the aggregate amount of 39,657 tons. The gross amount of custom's duty, received here, was £100,670, in 1838; £135,930, in 1841; above £116,000 in 1848; and £121,750 in 1849. Here are large bonded warehouses for all sorts of foreign produce. The chief exports are copper and lead ores, manganese, granite, limestone, clay, fish, &c. Though the coasting trade of Plymouth is more important than its foreign trade, the latter comprises upwards of 50,000 tons annually, consisting chiefly of wine, fruit, corn, timber, &c. The port has several fine vessels engaged in the fruit trade, and receives some of the first importations of early fruits from Denia, Valencia, Zante, &c. Great quantities of coal and culm are imported here for the consumption of the three towns, and the places on or near the navigable rivers, Tamar, Plym, and Lynher. Of late years, Plymouth has become celebrated as a port for emigration to Australia, and other parts of the world. In 1849, no fewer than 130 emigrant ships left the harbour, with 15,805 passengers, of which 109 ships, with 14,118 passengers, went to Australia; 10 ships, with 1171 passengers to Canada; and the rest went to the Cape of Good Hope, the United States, Port Natal, and San Francisco. In 1847, the number of emigrants who left here in 26 vessels, was 1230; but in the following year, 8505 left, in 83 ships; so that no fewer than 25,730 have sailed from Plymouth during the last three years. Here are several respectable government and general emigration agents, and the vessels are generally of the best description, lying in Catwater or the Sound, always afloat, and sailing quickly and punctually. Plymouth has also about 80 fishing vessels, of which about 60 are Trawlers, which employ about five men and boys each, and go out to the fishing ground 10 or 12 miles off the coast, where they fish with nets that sweep the bottom of the sea. The others are smaller craft, called Hooking and Seine Boats, and usually carry two men, and a boy each. When the mackerel and pilchard seasons arrive, there are large accessions to the Plymouth boats from Brighton, Hastings, Yarmouth, Rye, Cornwall, &c., and in some seasons there are from 200 to 300 boats on the fishing stations. Turbot, soles, brill, cod, hake, mullet, and a great variety of other fish are caught here; and salmon, trout, plaice, &c., in the Tamar and other rivers. Fish is not cured here to any large extent, but great quantities are sent in a fresh state by rails, (as well as by fast sailing cutters to Southampton, and thence by rails,) to London, Bath, Bristol, Manchester, and other markets. The mackerel fishery is sometimes amazingly prolific, as many as 500,000 fish having been taken, and brought into Plymouth in one day, and sold wholesale for about £2000, or at 8s. per 120. In the first twelve days of March, 1850, near 400 tons of mackerel left here by rails, and one train took as many as 120,000 of these delicious fish to London, &c. An association of fish speculators call themselves the "Hong Kong Company," and another company has recently formed an oyster bed in Stonehouse Pool, and supplied it with fish and spat of a superior quality from Helford river, Cornwall. The Channel has lately been infested with a species of large fish, called by the fishermen Blower Whales, from 20 to 30 feet long, and making a loud and disagreeable noise. One of these whales got entangled in the nets of a lugger which had all her gear out, and took the boat in tow at such a furious rate through the sea, that the poor fishermen were compelled to cut the rope, and let the monster go with all their nets, worth £90. This occurred about 12 miles S.W. of Bolt Head. As already noticed, the three towns still derive a large portion of their prosperity from the naval and military establishments. and it is expected that Plymouth will be made a mail-packet station after the completion of the Great Western Docks, near the terminus of the South Devon Railway, as noticed at page 643. The South Devon Shipping Company has a large number of shareholders, who receive about £10 per share annually.
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The CUSTOM HOUSE

The CUSTOM HOUSE is situated on the Parade, near Sutton Pool, and in a large and handsome structure, built of granite, in 1819-'20, at the cost of £8000, in lieu of the old one, which was small and inconvenient. It contains a long room 52 feet by 26, and all other necessary offices for the business. Geo. Jones, Esq., is the collector; Mr. Wm. Lockyer, comptroller; Mr. D. W. Lowe, landing surveyor: Messrs. Thomas Page, Richd. Luscombe, W.B. Ramsey, J.H.S. Russell, and W.D. bickle, searchers, coast waiters, &c.; John Steer, John Salmon, Thos. Potbury, Edw. Lawson, Lewis Pode, Rd. Birdwood, and W.G. Slaughter, clerks; Robt. French, jerquer, &c.; R.M. Parker and Chas. Coddeford, warehouse keepers; Cphr. Rea. tide surveyor; and Edwin Langmead, superintendent of lockers.
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The INLAND REVENUE OFFICE

The INLAND REVENUE OFFICE (late Excise) is in Duke street. John McCulloch, Esq., is collector; Mr. John Hannaford, clerk; T. Warren, supervisor; H. Goffe, port officer; and Robt. Tothill, John Makeham, W. Perry, and S. Webb, are the division officers.
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The BOROUGH OF PLYMOUTH

The BOROUGH OF PLYMOUTH comprises the Island of St. Nicholas, and the two parishes of St. Andrew and King Charles the Martyr, except their out-townships of Pennycross and Compton-Gifford. Its population, charters, and general history are shown at preceding pages. Under the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, the Town Council consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 36 councillors, with a recorder, town clerk, and other officers; and the borough is divided into six wards, and has a commission of the peace, a court of quarter sessions, &c. The paving, lighting, and improvements of the town, and the management of the poor are vested in separate commissioners, or guardians, under acts of Parliament obtained for those purposes; and the three towns were associated under a local act for the recovery of debts under £5, but the latter has now given place to the new county court. An act for improving the town was obtained in the 51st of George III., and was amended in the 5th of George IV., by "An Act for the better paving, lighting, cleansing, watching, and improving the Town and Borough of Plymouth, and for regulating the police, and, removing and preventing nuisances and annoyances therein." The municipal act of 1835, vested the police with the Corporation. In 1849, the Commissioners of Improvement received from rates £6860, out of which they expended £2541 in improvements; £1958 in paving and draining; £1443 in lighting; £173 in watering the streets; and £170 in salaries; and paid £600 as interest on debt. In 1833, the entire Revenue of the Corporation amounted to about £6782, and their expenditure to £7510, with a debt of £39,000. Their income in 1840 was £10,533, of which £5446 arose from rents, £1157 from tolls and dues, £2677 from borough and watch rates, and £910 from the sale of property. Their expenditure in the same year was £9904, of which £919 was for salaries to municipal officers, £1426 for salaries of police and constables, £1853 for public works, repairs, &c.; £428 for prosecutions, administration of justice, &c.; £155 for charities, £116 for gaol expenses, and £1194 for payments of interest and principal on the borough debt, which has since been considerably reduced. As lords of the manor, the Corporation own the tolls and dues of the market and fairs, now let for £3030 per annum, on lease for three years. The rateable property of the borough has recently been assessed at the annual value of £85,393, viz., £56,200 in St. Andrew's, and £29,193 in the parish of Charles. A rate of 6d. in the pound on this rental yields £2134, which is about the sum usually required for the support of the police force. The new BOROUGH PRISONS, which were completed in 1849, are pleasantly situated on the north-east side of the town, and cost about £13,500, of which about £3500 was derived from the freeman's, or prison fund, and £10,000 was borrowed, chiefly from the Exchequer Loan Commissioners. They are handsomely built of blue limestone, relieved by Caen-stone dressings, and the sashes are all of cast iron, glazed with plate glass a quarter of an inch thick. They are generally in the Italian style, and the lofty boundary wall encloses about three acres, divided into airing grounds, &c. The governor's house and porter's lodge are on each side of the entrance. The prisons are in the centre of the ground, and are disposed in three large wings, comprising the governor's offices, apartments for the matron, a chapel and surgery, visiting cells, convalescent rooms, a bath room, and cells for 60 prisoners, including six for male and three for female debtors, for whom there are comfortable day rooms and airing grounds. There are four solitary cells, so constructed as to admit air, but no light; and there are 24 airing grounds, radiating from a common centre, and each to be occupied by only one prisoner at a time, whilst an officer in so placed as to be able to see into all the yards, - the arrangements having been so made as to carry out the separate system, in all its completeness, both in the prisons and the chapel. The GUILDHALL, in Whimple street, was built in 1800, at the cost of £7000, on the site of the old one, which had been erected in 1600. It is an incommodious and inelegant building, containing a justice hall, several apartments for the transaction of corporation affairs, the police station, and several cells, &c., which served as the borough prison till the recent completion of the new prisons. The erection of a new Town Hall, on a scale adequate to the present wants of the town and borough, is in contemplation. In the present hall is a fine portrait of George IV., when Prince Regent. Here are held the Quarter and Petty Sessions of the borough; but the Bankruptcy Court, lately established here, is held at the Hall of Commerce; and the County Court, for Plymouth District is to be held in the new Town Hall, &c., now erecting at Stonehouse, but is now held in the Guildhall, for the three towns, every Tuesday, and also every alternate Wednesday. Mr. Wm. Jacobson is clerk of the latter court and Mr. J.H. Williams, high bailiff. The office is at Eldad place. As noticed at page 635, the borough sent members to Parliament as early as the reign of Edward I., and has sent two regularly since its incorporation in the 18th of Henry VI. For a long period, Plymouth was considered as an Admiralty Borough, and was generally represented by Lords of the Admiralty, or by Admirals; but when the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) did the Corporation the honour of becoming their high steward, they considered themselves under royal patronage, and two gentlemen of the Prince's household represented them till the election of 1818. The number of voters was 1898 in 1837, and is now upwards of 2000. PRINCE ALBERT succeeded the late Duke of Sussex, as Lord High Steward of the Borough of Plymouth; and Viscount Ebrington and Roundell Palmer, Esq., are its present MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. The following is a list of the Town Council, Borough Magistrates, and Officers.
MAYOR, John Moore. Esq.; RECORDER, W.C. Rowe, Esq.
BOROUGH MAGISTRATES, Sir Wm. S. Harris, Colonel Dunsterville, and Thos. Bowes, Geo. Coryndon, Wm. H. Hawker, Wm. Prance, John Moore, Thos. H. Bulteel, David Derry, and Geo. T. Shortland, Esqrs.
ALDERMEN.
David Derry Wm. Burnell George Corydon Alfred Booker
Thomas Were Fox Wm. Smith Kerswell Herbert H. Gibson Jph. C. Cookworthy
Wm. Prance James Skardon Thomas H. Balteel Thomas D. Newton
COUNCILLORS.
Frankfort Ward. John Pope Drake's Ward Wm. Luscombe
George Jackson Wm. Truman Harris George Venecombe Wm. H. Hawker, jn.
Wm. Phillips Samuel Treeby Thos. Baron Tyeth James Marshall
Thomas Mitchell Vintry Ward Wm. Marshall St. Andrew's Ward.
John Long Colley Samuel Stanbury George Frean John Moore
Alexander Pontey Thomas Pollard Ralph Cole Wm. Baron
John Murch Wm. Hy. Hawker John Hallett John Curgenven
Charles' Ward. Wm. Fredk. Collier Sutton Ward. Fras. Freke Bulteel
John Burnell Robt. White Stevens Wm. Moore John Kelly
Wm. Mortimer Thomas Stevens Wm. Coming George Mennie
Samuel Derry John W. Sparrow

Town Clerk, Charles C. Whiteford, Esq.; Coroner, J. Edmonds, Esq.
Clerk of the Peace, Robert Edward Moore, Esq.
Clerk to the Magistrates, Mr. Thomas Phillips.
Treasurer, C.W. Croft.; Surveyor, A.H. Bampton .
Police Superintendent, Joseph Gibbons.
Sergeants of Mace, Samuel Cook and John Spry
Town Crier, Robert Rowe; Town Corporal, W. Trengrove.
Corn Inspector, Mr. Abel Keen.

Borough Prisons :- Thos. and Mrs. Plimsaul, governor and matron; Rev. Geo. Bellamy, chaplain; R. Freeman, surgeon; and G.H. Lee, Schoolmaster.
CHARITY TRUSTEES :- T. Gill, T. Bewes, H. Knight, J.C. Cookworthy, W. Prance, W.H. Evans, H.M. Gibson, J. Williams, W. Jacobsen, and G.W. Soltau, Esqrs. Clerk, Mr. J. Edmonds.
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MARKETS, FAIRS, &c.

MARKETS, FAIRS, &c. - A grant for a market and fair at Plymouth was first obtained in 1253, the former to be held on Thursdays, and the latter on the festival of St. John the Baptist. In 1257, Baldwin de L'1sle had a grant for another market at Sutton, and a fair for three days at the festival of the Ascension. Here are now markets every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, when a plentiful supply of every commodity may be obtained. The corn market, on Tuesday and Thursday, is well attended by the farmers and dealers residing within the distance of 15 or 20 miles. There is a great market, for cattle, &c., on the second Thursday of every month; and large fairs, for cattle, merchandise, and pleasure, are held on the first Mondays in April and November. The Market Place occupies three acres of ground, and has three entrances, from Cornwall street, East street, and Drake street It was built by the Corporation, about 1809, and affords ample room for meat, corn, fish, poultry, and vegetables, as well as for a considerable display of manufactured goods. It might have been made one of the handsomest market places in England, but the coup d'oeuil is much injured by the irregularity of the structure. It is, however, very spacious and convenient, and has a division set apart for corn, and an area for moveable stalls, carts, &c. The cattle market is at the head of Tavistock street. At the fairs, part of the area is occupied by shows, "c. Races are held in Chelson Meadow, near Saltram; and during the year there are several Regattas and Rowing Matches in the harbours of the three towns.

The principal manufactures of the town are those of soap, sail cloth, Roman cement, rope, and twine. Here are also many ship building yards, several iron foundries, breweries, steam sawing mills, a sugar refinery, starch works, &c. Mr. Wm. Cookworthy, of Plymouth, was the first person who found out the materials for manufacturing porcelain, as now practised at Worcester. His original experiments were made at Plymouth, where a manufactory was for a while established, but it was not successful till its removal to Worcester, after repeated trials here and at Bristol. Here is still a pottery, where various kinds of earthenware are manufactured. The Mill Property belonging to the Corporation produces about £700, arising from the Higher and Lower Grist Mills; the Mills, &c., in Drake's place and Mill street; the Higher Malt Mill, and the Factory, in Russell street. There is a Flax Mill at Stone Park, and a large patent rope and cordage manufactory at Teats hill. Here are also a number of brush makers.

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WATER and GAS WORKS

WATER AND GAS WORKS. As already noticed, Plymouth is indebted to the skill and liberality of the great Sir Francis Drake, for the leat, or conduit (18 miles in length,) which has supplied the town with pure water for nearly three centuries. Formerly, the inhabitants had to fetch the water from a few fountains, in different parts of the town, or from the small reservoir at the head of Old Town street; but about 25 years ago, the Corporation greatly improved the works, by building a weir across the river Plym, at the head of the leat, in Dartmoor, and by conveying the water in iron pipes from three reservoirs to the houses in the principal streets. Further improvements were carried out some years afterwards; but the supply is still very deficient, and many of the streets are without water pipes. Measures are, however, in contemplation, for supplying all parts of the town, by extending the course of the leat, and by making large reservoirs at Sheepstor, Manadon, and Torr-House. From 1825 to 1833 the Corporation expended £20,816 in enlarging the water works; and about £6000 in 1849 and '50. The water rents now yield about £3300 per annum. Oil Gas Works were established in Exeter street, under an act passed in the 4th of George IV.; but soon afterwards, the United General Gas Company of London constructed coal gas works at Mill Bay, for supplying the three towns. The high price charged by this company, while its monopoly existed, induced the inhabitants of Plymouth and Stonehouse to form a company for a cheaper supply, for which an act of parliament was obtained; and in a few years, the new company compelled the old one to sell them their works. New Gas Works were constructed at Coxide, in 1845, at the cost of £25,000, raised in £10 shares.
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The EXCHANGE

The EXCHANGE, in Woolster street, near the Custom House, was built in 1813, at the cost of £7000, raised in £25 shares. Until a few years ago, it was only partially occupied, and had a large open area, surrounded by a colonnade; but this area has recently been built upon, and covered with a glass dome, and offices have been built under the galleries. The building is now very spacious, and fully occupied. It comprises a very large room, for sales and public meetings; a News Room, 41 feet by 20; the Hall of Commerce; and numerous mercantile and public offices. The Exchange Subscription Reading and News Room Association, was established in 1848, and has already about 200 members. The "change hour" is from twelve to one o'clock. The Steam Packet Companies have offices in the Exchange; as also have the Fishermen's Mutual Insurance Society, established in 1844; the Port of Plymouth Ship Masters' Society, established in 1830; the Board for the Examination of Masters and Mates, instituted about four years ago, and to which Mr. R.W. Stevens is clerk; and the Trustees of the Merchant Seamen's Hospital Fund, to which every master of a vessel pays 2s., and the crew 1s. each per month, for their mutual relief in times of sickness and infirmity, and for the relief of the widows and children of such as have died in the service. This fund was institued [sic] by an act of the reign of George II., establishing a Corporation in London, with authority to establish funds for this purpose at the outports. The Plymouth fund was commenced in 1752, and is vested in trust with 15 of the merchants and shipowners of the port. It has now £1500 three per cent. stock, and receives about £700 per annum in contributions. Mr. J.E. Blewett is the secretary.

As already noticed, the town has been much improved during the last ten years. The most recent alteration is the widening of Whimple street, at the western end of which stands the new POST OFFICE, a large and elegant building, erected by a company of shareholders in 1848, at the cost of £3000, from designs by Mr. O.C. Arthur, after the style of the Temple of Vesta, at Tivoli, in Italy. Some parts of it are let as offices; but the chief part is occupied as the Post-office and the post master's residence, and is rented by government for 75 years, at £100 per annum. The Branch Bank of England was removed from Exeter to Plymouth in 1834, and now occupies a large and handsome building, at George's place, erected in 1844. Here are also three other Banking Houses. The ROYAL HOTEL and THEATRE form an extensive and elegant fabric, which was finished in 1813, at the cost of about £60,000, partly supplied by the Corporation, and partly raised by way of tontine. The north front is 270 feet long, and has in the centre a magnificent portico of the Ionic order, under which are the entrances to the boxes, and to the great hall and staircase of the assembly rooms. The Theatre is spacious and elegant; and the principal supports and framework of the boxes, and all the interior partitions, are of cast iron, and the roof of wrought iron. The proscenium is formed by four beautiful marble columns, with gilt bases and capitals, supporting an elegant entablature, from which rises an arch richly empanelled. The Hotel, which lets for about £750 per annum, occupies all the eastern front, and has in the centre an Ionic portico, corresponding in its proportions with the temple of Ilissus, a choice example of Grecian simplicity. Many of its apartments are spacious and handsomely furnished, and attached to it is an elegant suite of Assembly and Ball Rooms. In Union road is a large room, called the Central Hall, belonging to Mr. Fisher, and let for exhibitions, meetings, &c. It will hold 800 persons.

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The ATHENAEUM

The ATHENAEUM is a chaste and classical structure, from designs by J. Foulston, Esq., the architect of the theatre. It is a fine example of the Grecian Doric order, and was built in 1818-'19, for the accommodation of the PLYMOUTH INSTITUTION, established in 1812, for the promotion of science, literature, and the fine arts. In the lecture room are many fine casts from ancient marbles, a colossal bust of Minerva, and other works of art; and the museum contains a large and interesting collection of minerals, fossils, preserved birds, shells, insects, curiosities, &c. There is here an occasional Exhibition of Paintings, formed partly by the works of Devonian artists, and partly from the collections of the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood. Devonshire has given birth to many distinguished artists, and Plymouth claims among its eminent painters, Northcote, Prout, Haydon, Ball, and Bath. Among other worthies of Plymouth may be enumerated Sir Thomas Edmondes, the ambassador and political writer; John Glanville, author of the well-known "Treatise on Witchcraft", and other works: John Quick, an eminent non-conformist divine, author of the "History of the Reformation in France;" Mrs Parsons, authoress of above 60 volumes of novels; Jacob Bryant, the learned mythologist: General Mudge, who conducted the first trigonometrical survey of the kingdom, under the auspices of Government; and his father, Dr. John Mudge, who was distinguished for his skill both in mathematics and medicine. Sir John Hawkins, who commanded the rear of the fleet which defeated the Spanish Armada, and ingloriously introduced the slave trade into the West Indies was a native of Plymouth. In 1675, Charles Fitz-Gibbon, natural son of Charles II., was created Earl of Plymouth. He died without issue, and in 1682, the title as conferred on Thomas Hickman Windsor, the seventh Baron Windsor. It was held by the Windsor family till a few years ago, when the eighth and last Earl of Plymouth died without male heirs. Four Newspapers are published here weekly; and in the town are several News Rooms and Libraries. The PUBLIC LIBRARY, established at the Guildhall, about the beginning of the present century, occupies a handsome building in Cornwall street, erected in 1811-'12, and comprising a large and well-supplied newsroom. There being no windows in the front, the various apartments are lighted by glazed domes, or cupolas, in the roof. The library comprises about 9000 volumes arranged in a spacious vaulted room, surrounded by a light gallery. The MECHANIC'S INSTITUTION, for which a commodious building is about to be erected, was commenced in 1826, and occupies a building in Princess square. It has an extensive library, and a numerous list of members. The Royal Devon and Cornwall Botanical and Horticultural Society holds two exhibitions yearly, at the assembly rooms of the Royal Hotel, and Mr. N.J. Easton is its secretary. There is a Natural History Society, at 16, Princess square; and a Young Men's Christian Association in Bedford street. Here is also a Branch Diocesan Architectural Society, and some other institutions for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences. The ROYAL UNION BATHS, in Union road, occupy a spacious building, and were founded in 1828, by a company of shareholders. They are daily supplied with pure sea water from the Sound, conveyed in iron pipes to a reservoir, which holds 2700 hogsheads. Baths of every description may be had here, including warm, tepid, vapour, sulphur, hot air, slipper, plunge, shower, douche, and swimming baths. Here is also the VICTORIA SPA, which is obtained from a boring in the Artesian manner, 360 feet deep. A comparison of this spa with sea water, from which it is supposed to be derived, by infiltration through the rocks, shows that, while it has lost bromine, iodine, and their acids, it has acquired sulphate of lime, and carbonates of lime and iron, and that it has, in consequence, become equivalent to the saline chalybeates of Cheltenham and Tunbridge.
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CHURCHES, &c.

CHURCHES, &c. As already noticed, Plymouth was anciently called Sutton, and was a prebendal parish attached to the collegiate church of Plympton, till that church was converted into a priory, when Sutton was appropriated to it. (See page 634.) After the Reformation, the great tithes of Plymouth, with the advowson of the vicarage, were vested with the Corporation, but since the Municipal Reform, they have sold the patronage of both vicarages. In 1640, the borough was divided into two parishes by act of parliament, but the new parish church was not completed till after the Restoration, when it was dedicated to the memory of Charles I. The population of the two parishes of St. Andrew and Charles the Martyr, is stated at page 633, where it will be seen that they have two out-townships, beyond the limits of the borough. In monastic times, here were several religious houses, but nothing is known relating to their foundation or history. The Franciscans or Grey Friars are supposed to have had small monasteries in Palace Court and on the site of the Distillery in Southside street, where there are some interesting remains of ancient architecture. The White Friary is supposed to have been in Friary court, the principal entrance to which is through an antique dilapidated gateway. A Cistertian Abbey gave name to Abbey street, and its remains may be traced in the large building, called the Abbey Wine Vaults, which still retains much of its original ecclesiastical character. The White Friary was licensed by Bishop Stapledon in 1324, at the desire of Edward II., and was granted at the dissolution to Giles Iselham. St. Andrew's Parish Church is a spacious and venerable structure, which is mentioned in a survey made in 1291, but was evidently mostly rebuilt in the 15th century. It has been thoroughly renovated and much improved since 1824, and has now 2500 sittings, of which 1000 are free. It is chiefly in the perpendicular or early English style, and consists of a spacious nave, chancel, and sides aisles, two small transepts, and a fine lofty tower, which contains a peal of eight deep toned bells, and was built about 1440, by a merchant of Plymouth, named Yogge. The weight of the tenor bell is 2½ tons, and the tower is surmounted at each angle by handsome and lofty pinnacles. The church being in a very dilapidated state, the parishioners in 1824 determined on its restoration, at the cost of £5000, part of which was borrowed from the Exchequer Loan Commissioners, to be repaid by annual payments of £150. The improvements were continued at intervals, and church rates were annually levied till 1834, when Mr. F. Bone became churchwarden. In 1839, Mr. Bone (without the aid of church rates) having succeeded in completing most of the intended renovations, and also in liquidating the debt, was presented by the parishioners with a valuable service of plate. The interior is divided by clustered columns and pointed arches, and has now a handsome appearance. Much elegance is displayed in the design and ornaments of the pulpit and reading desk, which, like the pews and seats, are of oak. The unsightly galleries in the aisles were removed, and new ones were erected in the transepts, and at the west end. The beautiful oak roof, with its finely carved bosses, was thoroughly cleansed and restored, and a noble stair-case of teak wood was constructed in the lower story of the tower to communicate with the galleries and the organ loft. The organ is very powerful, and was purchased by subscription in 1735. Saml. Addis, in 1741, gave £400, to be invested in the funds, for the benefit of the organist. The three east windows have been enriched with stained glass, and a handsome altar screen has been erected since 1841. The western windows in the aisles are about to be replaced by new ones, and the north porch is about to be rebuilt. The great defect in this extensive church is the want of a clerestory. Its situation was formerly too closely confined by a number of old houses, which belonged mostly to the vicarage, and have lately been removed for the improvement of this central part of the town. In the aisles are many neat mural monuments, on one of which is a fine bust of the Rev. Zachary Mudge, a late vicar, who died in 1769, and was the author of a volume of sermons. Another monument is in memory of Dr. Wm. Woollcombe, an eminent physician, who died in 1822. The principal group represents the genius of medicine supporting indigence. In the north aisle is another monument, on which religion, personified by a female figure, rests upon a medallion bust of the Rev. John Gandy, M.A., a prebendary of Exeter, who died in 1824, aged 85 years, during 55 years of which he held this vicarage, besides previously officiating here five years as curate. This memorial was erected by public subscription, in record of the many virtues of the late venerable vicar. Here is also a tablet in memory of the late celebrated comedian, Charles Mathews, who was born in 1776, and died in 1835. The vicarage, valued in K.B. at £12. 5s. 5d., and in 1831 at £921, is in the patronage of the Rev. E. Holland, and incumbency of the Rev. John Hatchard, M.A., who derives his income partly from fees and vicarial property, and partly from the small tithes, which have been commuted for the following yearly sums:- £153 from St. Andrew's, £350 from Pennycross, and £65 from Compton Gifford. The vicar of Charles has £525 a year in lieu of tithes, of which he derives £160 from Compton Gifford. The great tithes belong to the land owners, except a few small moduses. The Reverends C.A. Marrett and C.T. C. Trelawny are the curates, and Mr. W.P.H. White is the clerk. The. PARISH CHURCH OF KING CHARLES THE MARTYR is a large fabric, of mixed architecture, in the eastern part of the town, and was erected under the powers of an act of parliament passed in 1640, but owing to the troubles of the civil wars, it was not completed till 1658, nor consecrated till the Restoration. It consists of a spacious nave, with north and south aisles, a chancel, and a tower, crowned by a spire, which was struck by lightning, and mostly rebuilt about 25 years ago. There are eight bells in the tower, but two of them are broken. The interior of the church has a neat appearance, and contains about 1700 sittings. A new organ, by Beavington and Son, has recently been erected in the east gallery. Here are several handsome monuments, one of which has a finely sculptured bust of the Rev. R. Hawker, D.D., who died in 1846. The vicarage, valued in 1831 at £612 per annum, was in the patronage of the late Sir C. Bisshopp, Bart. The Rev. H.A. Greaves, M.A., is the incumbent. The parish of Charles comprises a great part of the town, the village of Lipson, and the tithing or chapelry of Compton Giford. ST. ANDREW'S CHAPEL, in Lockyer street, is an elegant chapel of ease to St. Andrew's parish, and was erected In 1822-3, at the cost of £5000, mostly contributed by the Rev. B. Lampen, (the first incumbent) and R. Woolcombe, J. Pridham, and Thos. Gill, Esqrs. The front is composed of large blocks of granite, in the Grecian style, with a cupola and bell on the top. The interior has about 1100 sittings, and is handsomely fitted up. It has galleries and a good organ, and many of the pews are private property. The benefice is a perpetual curacy, valued in 1831 at £115, and now in the patronage of the vicar of St. Andrew's, and incumbency of the Rev. G. Hadow, M.A. CHARLES' CHAPEL, in Tavistock place, was built by subscription in 1828, as a chapel of ease to the parish of Charles, and has upwards of 1500 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in 1831 at £109, and is in the patronage of Trustees, and incumbency of the Rev. W. Hawker. To supply that great want of church room which has long been felt in Plymouth, large portions of the town and two parishes have lately been divided by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners into the five DISTRICT PARISHES and perpetual curacies of Trinity, Christ Church, St. Peter, St. James, and Sutton-upon-Plym, but churches for all of them have not yet been provided. TRINITY CHURCH, in Southside street, is a substantial structure, in the Doric style, erected in 1841-2, by subscription and a grant from the Incorporated Society. It has 1082 sittings, of which 636 are free. The Rev. H.C. Smith is the incumbent, and the vicar of St. Andrew's is the patron. CHRIST CHURCH is a handsome structure, in Oxford street, and was built in 1845-6. It is in the perpendicular style, and has 1080 sittings, of which 536 are free. The vicar of St. Andrew's is patron, and the Rev. R. Malone, M.A., is the incumbent. ST. PETER'S CHURCH was formerly Eldad Chapel, which was built in 1830, for the late Rev. Jno. Hawker, B.A., but was never consecrated. It was licensed by the Bishop as St. Peter's Church in 1848, and was altered and improved in that and the following year. The patronage is in the Crown and Bishop alternately, and the Rev. G.R. Prynne, B.A., is the incumbent. The District Parishes of St. James and Sutton-upon-Plym are in the same patronage, and the former is in the incumbency of the Rev. G.S. Hookey, and the latter of the Rev. G. Carrighan. Churches have not yet been erected for them, but they preach in licensed rooms, the former at the Union Baths, and the latter at Catdown. Portland Chapel is a sort of free evangelical church, which was built in 1844 by its minister, the Rev. James Babb, M.A., with a house for his own residence. He only retains a life interest in the chapel and house, which he has vested with 13 trustees for the future endowment of the "Poor Saints Relief Fund," established six years ago, for the relief of poor and pious applicants. This fund is intended as the successor to that of the Corpus Christi Society, which was founded in 1790 by Dr. Hawker, a late vicar of Charles, but is now obsolete.
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CHAPELS

CHAPELS. - Dissenters are numerous and influential in Plymouth, for though it has only nine episcopal places of worship, there are in the town about 20 chapels and meeting houses belonging to various sectarians. The Independents are the most numerous, having five chapels in Norley street, How street, Britonside, York street, and Courtenay street. The latter is called the Congregational Union Chapel, and is a handsome building, erected in 1848, at the cost of £2000. The Western College, for educating young men for the ministry among Independents, is at Plymouth, and the Rev. Dr. Alliott, is the president and theological tutor. There were Presbyterian and Independent congregations here in 1715, and also a French Church. The Presbyterian Chapel, in Batter street, was built in 1704, and repaired in 1846. There is a Unitarian Chapel in Norley street. and a Friends' Meeting House, in Bilbury street The latter was erected on the site of the old one in 1804, at the cost of £1200. There are Baptist Chapels in Princess street and George street, and the latter is an elegant structure, with a colonnade in front, and large schools attached; and was built in 1845, at the cost of £1000. There are Wesleyan Chapels in Buckwell lane, (erected in 1723,) Salem street, and Saltash street. The latter is a large and handsome building, which was erected in 1817, at the cost of about £5000, and has a burial ground. The Plymouth Brethren have chapels in Raleigh street and Compton Street. This sect originated here, and has now congregations in most of the principal towns in England. Among the other places of worship are - Bethesda Chapel in Ebrington street; the Old Tabernacle, at Britonside; Park street Chapel; the Calvinist Chapel, Octagon street; Bible Christian Chapel, Zion Street; the Jews' Synagogue, Catherine street; the Second Advent Chapel, at the back of Eldad, and the Bethel Union Chapel, in Castle Street. The latter was erected by subscription, in 1833, for the accommodation of sailors and soldiers, and is supplied chiefly by Independent and Wesleyan ministers, and has a large day and Sunday school.
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The CEMETERY

CEMETERY. - The P]ymouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport Cemetery Company, was established in 1846, with a capital of £15,000 in £25 shares, for the purpose of supplying an extensive cemetery for the three towns, where the old burial grounds have long been crowded, especially those at the parish churches, and that in Westwell street. This Cemetery is pleasantly situated on a gentle acclivity, about half a mile north of Plymouth, and about two miles from Devonport, and comprises ten acres of ground; more than half of which was consecrated by the Bishop, on June 5th, 1849, for the use of the Established Church, and the rest is appropriated to Dissenters, and was first opened in December, 1848. The ground is well enclosed and tastefully laid out, and has two neat chapels, in the decorated style, one for the consecrated, and the other for the unconsecrated division. About 8A. of land adjoining is to be added to the Cemetery, when required, having been purchased by the Company for that purpose, but now let for pasturage. The Cemetery forms a pleasant promenade, and east of it is a newly made road through the beautiful grounds, called Hyde Park. Mr. J.L. Colley, of 3, St. James' place, is the secretary; and the Rev. Wm. Hocker is chaplain of the church portion.

Schools, and Bible, Tract, Missionary, and other Institutions for the instruction and relief of the poor, and for the dissemination of religion, are attached to the churches and chapels, and the town has many Charitable Institutions, supported either by endowments or voluntary contributions. Miss Sellon and a few other ladies belonging to the Established Church, associated themselves in the three towns, in 1848, under the name of the PROTESTANT SISTERS OF MERCY, for the purpose of visiting and relieving the poor, and imparting to orphan and other children the blessings of a sound scriptural education. They now occupy a house at Wyndham square; but subscriptions to the amount of more than £14,000 have been raised, in answer to the appeals of the bishop and clergy, for the purpose of erecting them a home in one of the "Five Fields." A Brotherhood of Protestant religious zealots has recently been established at Eldad.

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The GRAMMAR SCHOOL

The GRAMMAR SCHOOL, in Catherine street, was founded by Queen Elizabeth, who, in the 15th year of her reign, granted the great tithes of Plymouth and the advowson of the vicarage to the Corporation, and directed that they should allow £20 a year to a schoolmaster. The school and master's house belong to the Orphans' Aid Hospital, and are rented by the Corporation, who are the patrons, and allow £20 a year to the master for teaching 12 sons of resident burgesses; besides whom he is allowed to take a large number of day scholars and boarders. The school is well conducted, and the Rev. Peter Holmes M.A., F.R.A.S., is the head master, and has six assistants. Here are also several excellent private schools, one of which is called the New Grammar School.
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HELE'S and LANYON'S CHARITY SCHOOL

HELE'S AND LANYON'S CHARITY SCHOOL, where 18 poor boys are educated, lodged, fed, and clothed, was till recently held in part of the Workhouse premises, called the Poor's Portion, and will be removed there again when certain alterations are completed. In 1632, Elize Hele, the great benefactor of Exeter and other places, (see pages 97 and 98,) gave certain lands, tenements, &c., to his executors, in trust that they should settle then for some charitable and godly uses. In 1658, the surviving executors vested property for the support of a charity school, with certain trustees, by a deed to which the Corporation and the Guardians of the Poor were made parties. This trust property now yields about £500 per annum, which is applied in schooling and maintaining 14 boys, and in giving apprentice fees and out-fits, to such as are apprenticed to trades on leaving the school. They are clothed in blue, and the master is allowed a yearly salary of £80, and has also the care of four poor boys, who are educated and maintained from the charity of John Lanyon, who, in 1674, left £2000 to be vested for that purpose. This trust property now consists of several houses, and money in the funds derived from the sale of property; and now yields about £200 per annum, which is expended in schooling, maintaining, and apprenticing four poor boys, who are taken from the Workhouse, formerly called the Hospital of the Poor's Portion.
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PLYMOUTH FREE SCHOOLS

PLYMOUTH FREE SCHOOLS, in Cobourg street, are supported chiefly by subscriptions and donations, and were established in 1810, on land belonging to Wm. Rowe's Charity, from which they have £25. 2s. 5d. per annum, as the dividends of £841 three per cent. consols. They are conducted on the national system, under the control of members of the Church of England, and are now attended by about 400 boys and 200 girls. Several new class rooms have recently been erected, and some of the higher branches of an English education are imparted to the elder boys, and every facility is afforded for the cultivation of any talent that may be evinced in the scholars. The master has a yearly salary of £80, and the mistress £40.
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The GREY SCHOOL

The GREY SCHOOL, in Hampton street, was commenced in 1714, and is supported partly by subscriptions, and collections at churches. Arising from donations and legacies this charity now possesses £3114. 9s. 7d. Old South Sea Annuities, and £1340 three per cent. consols, of which upwards of £700 arose from benefactions for apprenticing the scholars. The present school rooms, and the house for the master and mistress, were built in 1814, at the cost of £1178. Liberal salaries are paid to the teachers, and the charity now affords education and clothing to 50 boys and 50 girls, appointed by the trustees and a committee of subscribers.
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LADY ROGERS' CHARITY SCHOOL

LADY ROGERS' CHARITY SCHOOL, near Bedford terrace, was founded in 1773, pursuant to the will of Lady Rogers, who left £10,000 to be vested for the education and maintenance of poor girls of Devon and Cornwall. There is now belonging to this charity £27,872. 15s. 4d. three per cent. consols. About 50 poor girls are now educated and maintained in the school. They are admitted at eight, and are allowed to remain till fifteen years of age, when they are apprenticed, with premiums of 21s., and gifts of £5. 5s. for clothing, agreeable to a new scheme sanctioned by the Court of Chancery in 1787. Sir F.L. Rogers, Capt. Rogers, and others, are the trustees. The HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH, near Charles' Church, was established in 1787, and consists of a School of Industry and a Sunday School, for poor girls, supported chiefly by subscriptions and donations. Among the legacies to this charity are - £500 left by Thomas Hodson, in 1819, and £100 left by James Bruce, in 1814. About 40 of the scholars are clothed at the expense of the charity. The NATIONAL SCHOOLS, at Tavistock place, were established in 1835. They are attended by about 300 boys and 200 girls; and the Infant School, in Charles' parish, has about 180 scholars. The Ragged School Association was established in 1849, for the purpose of educating and training to habits of industry and piety the children of the most destitute poor; and has already opened two or three schools.
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The ORPHANS' AID HOSPITAL

The ORPHANS' AID HOSPITAL was founded in 1625, by Thomas and Nicholas Sherwill, who endowed it with houses, land, &c., now yielding about £200 per annum, and vested with the Charity Trustees of the Borough. This charity now educates and maintains ten orphan boys, who are boarded with Mrs. Hayes, in Catherine street. and educated at the Free School in Cobourg street. Devon and Cornwall Female Orphan Asylum, in Lockyer street, was founded in 1834, for the education and maintenance of poor orphan girls, with the view of training them to habits of industry, and fitting them for domestic service. It has now about 47 on the foundation, and 11 boarders, of whom nine are supported by the Naval and Marine Branch Society. The receipts of the hospital in 1849, comprised £280 from subscriptions, and £136 from donations. The Presbyterian School, in Batter street, was founded in 1785, by the Rev. Herbert Mends, who left £200 towards its support. It is now called Batter Street Benevolent Institution for clothing and educating 50 poor girls. It is supported chiefly by subscription, and children of all religious denominations are admitted, and instructed in reading, writing, needlework, &c.
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PLYMOUTH PUBLIC DISPENSARY

PLYMOUTH PUBLIC DISPENSARY was instituted in the year 1798, "for the gratuitous relief of the industrious poor with advice and medicines, and, if necessary attendance at their own houses, in time of sickness." It now occupies a commodious building in Catherine street, which was erected in 1808-9, at the cost of about £1650, including £234 paid for the land. For this building the town is chiefly indebted to the late Charles Yonge, Esq., who, in 1807, bequeathed to the charity £1000, which was preserved entire by the Rev. Duke Yonge paying the legacy duty. In the board room is a fine portrait and a marble tablet in memory of Mr. Yonge. Among the other principal benefactors to this useful and valuable charity are Admiral Vincent, £121; John Maxwell, £100; Mrs. Fox, £100; Capt. Grove, £450; and Mrs. Hirst, Joseph Pridham, Esq., Mrs. King, Miss Bewes, Miss Maxwell, and the late Joseph Whiteford, Esq., each £100. The charity now derives yearly about £165 from three per cent. consols, and £350 from subscriptions; and has in the course of each year about 2000 patients, nearly half of whom are visited in their own houses. Two physicians, four surgeons, and two dentists render their services gratuitously. The ROYAL EYE INFIRMARY, in Mill Bay road, was established in 1821, for the cure of diseases of the eye, and is under the patronage of Prince Albert. In the year 1849 it received 1213 patients, of whom 89 were in-patients. Its receipts during the same year amounted to £355, of which £174 was from subscriptions; £77 from donations; £27 from £933. 6s. 8d. three per cent. consols; and £54 from parishes, &c., for board of patients. The FEMALE PENITENTIARY for the three towns is in Ham lane. It was established in 1832, and has been the means of plucking many brands from the burning, and of restoring many unfortunate females to the paths of virtue. It receives about £170 a year from subscriptions, and about £70 from the work of the inmates, of whom it has sometimes 15 to 20. Here is a Lying-in-Charity, and also several benevolent societies for clothing and feeding the poor. The Soup Kitchen, in Green street, was built by the Misses White, of Seven-trees, and supplies soup to the poor in winter at 1d. per quart. Wash Houses for the Poor have recently been established by subscription.
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ALMSHOUSES

ALMSHOUSES. - The Old Church Almshouses for twelve poor widows and a nurse, are supported by the Corporation, and were in existence before 1573, but their origin is unknown. There is a large garden for the use of the inmates, and they each occupy separate rooms, and have weekly stipends of 1s. 9d., and monthly allowances of 12 pounds of flour. The Corporation pay the gardener and furnish the seeds. At the back of these are 12 almshouses for poor single women, under the care of the Guardians of the Poor, but they have no endowment. Under the same management are the New Church Almshouses, in Green street, built about 1680, with £300 left by Jno. Lanyon, and £100 given by John Gubbs. They afford shelter to 36 paupers. Prynne's, Baker's, and Fownes's Almshouses were sold by the Guardians of the Poor, about 50 years ago, for £600, and taken down for the improvement of the town. The £600 was expended on the workhouse buildings. Alice Miller's, alias Baker`s Almshouses were endowed with £10 a year out of 22A. of land at Tamerton Foliott, now belonging to the Guardians of the Poor, and let for £25 a year, which is divided among the inmates of almshouses in the borough. Jory's Almshouses at Coxide, were built and endowed by Joseph Jory, Esq., in 1702, for twelve poor widows. They are endowed with 16 houses, &c., in St. Andrew's parish, and a farm of 30½A., at Modbury, let for about £250 per annum. Each inmate has an allowance of 30s. per calendar month. Victoria Cottages, in Victoria street, were purchased in 1834 by the late Mrs. Hodson, who vested them as almshouses for twelve poor women, and endowed them with £500 three per cent. consols.

The Borough Charities, vested with the Corporation, and now managed by the Borough Charity Trustees, (see page 652,) comprise the following, and also the Orphans Aid, and the Old Church Almshouses, already noticed. At an early period, Sir John Gayer left an estate at Torr, in Pennycross, now let for £44. 18s. a year, out of which £8 is paid to the vicar of Charles, for preaching sermons preparatory to the administration of the sacrament; 24s. to the clerk and sexton, and £4 to the Orphans' Aid. The rest of the rent is distributed among the poor of the borough, chiefly in shirts, shifts, petticoats, and other clothing, together with about £90, arising yearly from the following gifts, viz., John White's, £11. 15s., left in 1584; John and Thomas Bound's, £2, left in 1642, out of Thistle Park; Robt. Hewer's, £4; and Baron's, Collin's, Hill's, and Ackerman's Gifts, amounting to £9. 12s. per annum. The Corporation have £14. 8s. yearly out of the tithes of Egg Buckland and St. Budeaux, left by John Burrough, for providing clothing for the "two town corporals and the governor of the barbican." Mrs. Joan Bennett's Trust, for the support of two exhibitioners from Plymouth at one of the Universities, yields about £100 per annum, of which about £40 arises from premises in Southside street, and the rest from £1841 three per cent. consols. Robert Rawling, in 1626, left £250 in trust to pay yearly £3 for the poor in the almshouses; £2 for the poor of Compton Gifford; 30s. for poor burgesses; and 10s. each to seven other parishes for the poor. He also left two tenements in Batter street, and other property, to the Orphans' Aid Hospital.

WM. ROWE, in 1690, left 3A. 3R. 27p. of land, called Shute Park, in trust to distribute the rent among the poor of the borough. It is now let for £52 per annum, which is distributed by the Guardians of the Poor. The same donor also left £841, three per cent consols, the dividends of which are applied towards the support of the Free Schools. In 1727, JAMES MADDOCK left to the Guardians of the poor £1500, in trust to distribute the proceeds yearly in clothing among the poor, one half to those receiving and the other half to those not receiving parochial relief. This charity now consists of £1400 old South Sea Annuities. In 1732, HENRY KELWAY left £1900 bank stock, in trust for the benefit of his relations, or in default of such, for the poor. This stock has since been increased by bonuses, &c., to £4860. 17s. 3d., which yields dividends amounting to about ten per cent. Pursuant to the donor's will, £43 is yearly distributed among his relations, and the rest of the income is applied in educating their children. The two vicars and the master of the Grammar school are the acting trustees.

ST. ANDREW'S PARISH has the following charities, besides its share in the general charities of the borough. The poor have four annuities of 52s. each for weekly distributions of bread, left by Sir John Acland and Wm. and John Hill, in the 17th century, and by John Morshead in 1750. For the same purpose they have the following yearly sums, viz., 50s. left by Capt. Ackerman, and £2. 2s. 3d. from Huxham's charity. The churchwardens distribute the bread. The poor of Pennycross tithing have £4 a year from the gift of John Harris, Johannah Knighton, and Robert Rawling.

The Parish of King Charles the Martyr has the following, besides its share of the borough charities. For distributions of bread, the poor have £5. 10s. yearly, as interest of £102. 10s. left by Mary Collins and John Morshead in 1750, and lent to the churchwardens. The Vicar distributes £7 yearly in clothing, as the gift of Eliz. Chapman and Mrs. Sutton. In 1796, Eleanor Huxham left £660 three per cent stock, in trust with the Vicar, to pay £15 yearly for ten poor women of Plymouth, in equal shares, and to distribute the rest of the dividends in bread at the two parish churches. The dividends of £334. 14s. 6d. three per cent. consols, left by James Stevens in 1797, are applied, one-half to the support of the Sunday School, and the other in distributions to the poor. The interest of £150, left by J. Bruce in 1841, is divided among three poor tradesmen's families. In 1829, Mrs. Mary Glanville Hodson, left the dividends of £500 three per cent. stock, to be distributed in bread on the 12th of April and Dec.; and in 1830, John Morris left the dividends of £100 of the same stock for distribution in bread among the poor parishioners on the 1st of January. The poor of Compton Gifford have 40s. a year from Rawling's Charity; and the interest of £200 left by Rebecca Shaw and Sarah Hancock.

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PLYMOUTH WORKHOUSE

PLYMOUTH WORKHOUSE: - By an act of parliament, passed in the 6th of Queen Anne, (1708,) for erecting a Workhouse in Plymouth for the two parishes, all almshouses belonging to the mayor and commonalty were vested in the Corporation of the Guardians of the Poor, established by that act, and consisting of the mayor, recorder, six of the magistrates, six of the common council, 20 inhabitants of the parish of St. Andrew, and 18 inhabitants of the parish of Charles. Among other property transferred to them was the hospital or workhouse called the Poor's Portion, built in 1630, and endowed with land and tenements now let for upwards of £20 a year, and given by various donors. This property is let on 99 years' leases, determinable on lives; and subject to fines on every renewal. The Guardians of the Poor are also in receipt of £5 a year in three annuities, left by Php. Francis, Jph. Palmer, and an unknown donor; and they have the management (jointly with the trustees,) of Hele's and Lanyon's Charities for the maintenance and schooling of poor boys, as already noticed. The act of Queen Elizabeth was amended by three other acts passed in the 32nd of George II., and the 26th and 53rd of George III., and under them the two parishes still maintain their poor, without any interference from the New Poor Law Commissioners. The Workhouse has been enlarged at various periods, and comprises an extensive range of buildings, partly ancient and partly modern, but many of the older parts have been altered or rebuilt. It stands in St. Andrew's parish, and has room for more than 400 paupers. The able bodied are employed in teazing oakum, making mats, &c. The guardians are elected annually, on the second Tuesday in May, 14 from the Town Council, 20 from the the ratepayers of St. Andrew's, and 18 from the ratepayers of the parish of Charles. The total cost of maintaining the poor of the two parishes was £11,580, in 1838; £16,529, in 1848; and £15,014, in 1849. The governor, deputy governor, treasurer, and receiver are appointed yearly by the guardians; and the following are the principal stipendary officers:- Robert Burnard, clerk; H. Wotton, cashier; Thomas Scammell, store keeper; Eliz. Burnard, matron; F.A. Pardon and Thos. Edwards, relieving officers; J.P. Williams and Mary Harris, teachers of the schools; and Thomas Cole and Rt. Prinn, collectors of poor rates. The two parishes form a registration district, and Mr. Wm. Pridham is the superintendent registrar. Messrs. J. West and H.H. Heydon are registrars of marriages; and James Wyatt and H.H. Heydon are registrars of births and deaths.
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PROVIDENT INSTITUTIONS

The PROVIDENT INSTITUTIONS of Plymouth comprise a Savings' Bank; three Lodges of Freemasons, held at the Royal Hotel, the Commercial Hotel, and the Golden Fleece; several other Secret Orders, and many Friendly Societies, &c. The FREEMASONS' HALL, at the end of Cornwall street, was built in 1827, at the cost of £2500. It is a handsome stone building, and on the ground floor are the Commercial News Rooms, established in 1832. The spacious hall above, is often let for lectures, exhibitions, concerts, and public meetings, and will accommodate upwards of 500 persons. The Plymouth and South Devon Savings' Bank, in Cornwall street, was established in 1837, and in November, 1848, had deposits amounting to £90,508, belonging to 4116 depositors, 58 Charitable Societies, and 14 Friendly Societies. It had at the same time invested £12,637 in the purchase of government annuities. In Nov., 1849, the deposits amounted to £97,883, of which £8185 had been deposited in new accounts during the year. The Earl of Morley is patron; Lord Seaton, president; J. Williams, Esq., treasurer; Mr. Wm. Haydon, secretary; and W.G. Haydon, actuary. Here is a branch of the Western Provident Association, noticed at page 110. Mr. Bottomley, of l 5, Tavistock place, is secretary to the local board.

Transcribed, and headings added. by Brian Randell, 13 Aug 1998

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